Thursday, November 5, 2009

BG 18.76

Today [6th November 2009], we will see about Velvikkudi [வேள்விக் குடி], which has been mutilated as Velukkudi [வேளுக்குடி]. It is on the way from Mannargudi to Tiruvarur. Many persons, who had performed Yagna [Tamil Velvi வேள்வி], lived here. They were all performing their duties or Dharma. Here, in the temple, Sri Prasanna Venkatesa Perumal is gracing. The Archaka here, is doing all services to the Lord, alone. From this place, many Vidwans have emerged. Tirumanjanam in this temple is eagerly attended by people all around this place. Anjaneya of this temple is very famous. As mentioned earlier, the lecturer's father was born in this place only. His father, Sri UVe. Velukkudi Varadacharya Swami, was honoured with the title Vak Amruta Varshi - Showering, Nectar like, Speech. He was born in 1921, in the month of Thai, in Vishaka star. In a Thai month only, Tirumazhisai Alwar was born; and, in Vishaka star was born Nammalwar. Thus, his father had very great affinity for Nammalwar's pasurams. After he completed his Fifth standard, his father [lecturer's grand father], put him in religious line and so he studied in the Patashala in Narayana Mudali street, in George Town area of Chennai. Then, he continued in the Patashala at Tirupati. After learning all, he learnt under Sri UVe. Karappankadu Swami. Then, he learnt under H.H. Sri Desika Varadacharya Swami, in Srirangam. He also learnt under H.H. Sri Sadhu Ramanaujacharya of Tirumala. He traveled North to South of this country, and propagated Sri Vaishnava philosophy. It is because of him, that this lecturer has gained knowledge. His family lived in Pavalakkara Street, in Chennai. There, we can see Sri Venugopala Swami temple. In this temple Sri Rukmini, Sri Venkatesa and Sri Andal are also gracing. There is also a sannidhi for Sri Rama and Hanuman. Tirumazhisai Alwar had once visited this temple. This lecturer, by profession, is a Chartered Accountant. In 1996, this lecturer stopped his C.A. profession and, from that time, he is fully involved in religious pursuit. The lecturer's father, once visited Srirangam for Vaikunta Ekadasi, and after the festival, he went round the temple worshiping Sri Ranganatha and Sri Thayar Sri Ranganayaki; immediately afterwards he died! He had such a great love for Srirangam and the Divine Couple took him to be with Them for ever! The lecturer is thus grateful fo Sri UVe. Karappankadu Swami, Sri UVe. Velukkudi Swami and his Acharya Sri Koil Kandadai Chandamarutam Cholasimhapuram Doddayacharya Swami.
Let us see the remaining slokas of Chapter 18. Sri Krishna now has a close look at Arjuna and asks whether Arjuna listened to all those He preached, with attention? Sloka 72:

kaccid etac chrutaṃ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā
kaccid ajñānasaṃmohaḥ pranaṣṭas te dhanaṃjaya 18.72

Te dhanamjaya = Arjuna [who has conquered desire for wealth], kaccid etac chrutam = was it listened, [Sri Krishna's preaching] tvayaikagrena cetasa = with concentrated mind?, kaccid ajnanasammoha = was [Arjuna's] ignorance based confusion, pranasta = lost? The Lord wanted to know whether His [18 Chapter long] preaching was attentively listened to by Arjuna and did that clear his confusion, based on ignorance. Arjuna replies in sloka 73:

arjuna uvāca

naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvatprasādān mayācyuta
sthitosmi gatasaṃdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṃ tava 18.73

After replying the Lord, Arjuna gets up and picks up his bow Gandeepa, with rejuvenated bravery! Nasto moha = [Arjuna replied that his] confusion was lost [or he has clear mind], labdha = [Arjuna had] gained, smrti = true knowledge, Acyuta = Sri Krishna [Who, never lets down His devotees], tvat prasadat = by Your [Sri Krishna's] blessings, maya = by me [Arjuna]. Gatasamdeha = [because all] doubts cleared, sthitosmi = [Arjuna] attained [his] natural self. Karisye = will act, vacanam tava = as per Your [Sri Krishna's] directions or words. It means Arjuna promises to act as advised by the Lord - that he would fight, as it was his assigned duty; with vairagyam; with the Three Tyagas; with atman gyana, that atman is servant of Paramatma; and with Bhakti. Swami Ramanuja in his Gita Bhashyam, inquires the Three points: what was Arjuna's confusion, how it was destroyed and what real knowledge did he gain? Arjuna thought body and soul were same. He thought he would be killing Bheeshma, etc. Next he never thought that both Chit and Achit were body of the Lord and the Lord was inner soul of all. Arjuna also thought that doing one's assigned Karma, would involve in samsaram further. All these thoughts born out of ignorance, were cleared. Arjuna understood that atman was eternal and ever servant of the Lord. The Lord was the Prime Force within all and was commanding and controlling. Doing one's own duties with detachment, enlightened and involved one in Bhakti. Thus, Arjuna is cleared of his worries and doubts, and picks up his bow, to start fighting. With this sloka, the conversation between Arjuna and Lord Sri Krishna ends. The remaining Five slokas of Chapter 18, are spoken by Sanjaya to Dridarashtra. In the beginning, Dridarashtra and Sanjaya conversed. He asked Sanjaya as to what was happening in the Kurukshetra battlefield. And, all these slokas were what Sanjaya told the King. Though Sanjaya was sitting in the palace far away from Kurukshetra, with the blessings of Vyasa, Sanjaya was able to visualize every happening in the battle field. Sloka 74:

sañjaya uvāca

ity ahaṃ vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ
saṃvādam imam aśrauṣam adbhutaṃ romaharṣaṇam 18.74

Ity = this, aham = I [Sanjaya], samvadam = conversation between, vasudevasya = Sri Vasudeva [Sri Krishna], parthasya ca = and Partha [Arjuna], mahatmana = the blessed, imam = this [conversation], asrausam = well listened to [by Sanjaya]. Adbhutam = [it was ] wonderful, romaharshanam = had goose bumps. Sanjaya is astonished at the intimacy between Arjuna and Sri Krishna. He calls Arjuna, Mahatma, a great soul! Sloka 75:

vyāsaprasādāc chrutavān etad guhyam ahaṃ param
yogaṃ yogeśvarāt kṛṣṇāt sākṣāt kathayataḥ svayam 18.75

Sanjaya says how he was able to visualize all those happenings. Arjuna was blessed with Divine eyes to view Viswaroopam, by the Lord; but, Sanjaya was blessed with such Divine visual power, by Vyasa. Vyasa prasada = with Vyasa's blessings, aham = I [Sanjaya] was, chrutvan = able to listen to, param guhyam = supreme or most sacred secret [revealing ways to attain Moksham]. Though this listening ability was blessed by Vyasa, he listened directly those sacred words from the Lord Himself. Yogam = [this Gita] yoga shastra, yogesvarat krsnat = from Sri Krishna, embodiment of all auspicious qualities, sakshat = directly, kathayata svayam = heard by self [Sanjaya]. Now, sloka 76:

rājan saṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya saṃvādam imam adbhutam
keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṃ hṛṣyāmi ca muhur muhuḥ 18.76

Sanjaya tells Dridarashtra that Sanjaya could never forget this great philosophy. The King might not have understood, Arjuna also might not have understood, Bheeshma and Drona might not have imagined, but Sanjaya told that the more and more he thought of those words, his delight was on the increase. Rajan = King [Dridarashtra], samsrtya samsrtya = more and more thinking of, imam = this, adbhutam = astonishing, punyam = sacred, samvadam = conversation between, kesavaarjunayo = Kesava [Sri Krishna] and Arjuna, muhur muhu = again and again, hrsyami = I [Sanjaya] am delighted. Sanjaya tells Dridarashtra that all the words spoken between Arjuna and Sri Krishna, were causing immense happiness to Sanjaya. But of all these slokas in all these Eighteen Chapters, one thing appeared very supreme to Sanjaya. Sloka 77:

tac ca saṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya rūpam atyadbhutaṃ hareḥ
vismayo me mahān rājan hṛṣyāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ 18.77

The Viswaroopam, which was exhibited by the Lord in Chapter 11, thinking of it every time, Sanjaya tells Dridarashtra, that he was amazed more and more. Tat = that [Viswaroopam, shown in Chapter 11], samsrtya samsrtya = thinking again and again, rupam = that Image was, adyadbhutam = most amazing, me vismayo mahan = greatly astonishes me [Sanjaya], hrsyami = makes [Sanjaya] happy, puna puna = again and again. Dridarashtra asked in the beginning one question: who would succeed? Dridarashtra's children or Pandu's children? Now, Sanjaya seems to reply that Dridarashtra's children would never see victory and flourish. None can try to antagonize righteous people. Sanjaya tells his opinion in the last sloka of Chapter 18, and of Gita:

yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ
tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir dhruvā nītir matir mama 18.78

This is Sanjaya's opinion. Yatra = where, yogesvaro krsna = [the repository of all auspicious qualities and commander of entire Universe] Yogeswara Sri Krishna is, yatra = where, partho dhanurdhara = Arjuna is with bow [when Sanjaya tells this, Arjuna is already with his bow, Gandeepa], tatra = there will be, dhruva = steady, sri = wealth, vijaya = victory, bhuti = prosperity, niti = justice or Dharma, matir mama = this is my [Sanjaya's] opinion. Sanjaya tells that where Sri Krishna and Arjuna are, there victory, prosperity, wealth and justice would remain firm. He concludes thus. We also conclude this lecture series in Kannanin Aaramudu. It was started in January, 2007 and concluded in November 2009. We convey our sincere thanks to:
  • First to Sri Gitacharya gracing in Triplicane, Chennai.
  • Veda Vyasa, who wrote Mahabharata epic, in a cave in Badarikashram.
  • All our Acharyas for excellent commentaries on Gita. Especially to Swami Yamunacharya for his Gitarta Sangraham, Swami Ramanuja for his Gita Bhashyam and Swami Vedanta Desika for his Tatparya Chandrika.
  • That anonymous person, who initiated this lecture, so that all are benefited.
  • Doordarshan - Podhigai, especially its Madurai branch and all technicians and engineers, involved in timely and quality telecast of this program
  • Hindu Religious Endowment Department of Government of Tamilnadu, for giving permission to record in all temples visited.
  • All temple authorities and religious servants in the service of God.
  • Sri UVe Karappankadu Swami and Sri UVe Velukkudi Swami
  • All listeners for the sincerity and support.
Now that the series is over, what next? It is proposed to give lectures on SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM from 9th November 2009, onwards, daily Monday thru Friday, at 6:30 AM.

U.Ve. Sri Mukkur LakshmiNarasimhachariar Swami
  • The Lord Sri Mattapalli Perumal and Sri Rajya Lakshmi Thayar, for blessing me with an opportunity to listen to Gita, sloka by sloka, and complete the translation with my limited intelligence and grasping power.
  • I did not take a formal permission of Sri UVe. Velukkudi Swami or Doordarshan authorities. But they have been generous in not raising any objections. I apologise for this great lapse, and at the same time I convey my gratitude to them.
  • I started this as a translation for my son Chi. Raghunathan and daughter Sow.Sowmya, in USA, and wanted to write in daily email. But at their advice to make the audience larger, I started this blog and uploaded the lectures. My thanks are to them and their spouses Sow.Supraja and Chi. Gopi Prashanth.
  • There were occasions, when I could not be physically present to record and then translate the lecture. But many persons helped in recording and made my task easy. In that regard I am thankful to my Mother-in law smt. Renganayaki, my wife smt.Parimala, Smt.Padmini & Sri.Vedantam of West Mambalam, Smt.Akilavalli & Sri.Ranganathan of West Mambalam, Smt.Vaidehi & Sri.Badri of T.Nagar and Sri&Smt. T.S. Naganathan of Srirangam.
  • To all those who gave words of encouragement, I am grateful.
  • Last but not the least, I am grateful to Sri UVe. Mukkur Sri Lakshmi Narasimhachariar Swami, who is not physically present in this world to bless me, but who is always blessing me and my family in all our endeavours. Only his blessings have made me what I am today.
  • There are many websites I visited to give visual effects to the lectures and also for some clarifications. Though, I do not have the list of all, I am grateful to the following sites:
  6. sacred-texts,com
and many, many more.

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

BG 18.75

We are at the bronze statue of Gitopadesam on the banks of Brahma Sarovar. It is Arjuna's chariot, driven by Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna used Arjuna as a tool, and conducted the war. Since He had promised Duryodana that He would not use His weapons in the war, He did not fight in the war. Arjuna was holding Gandeepa bow. Did it not mean that Arjuna fought the war? Alwar does not accept it. Alwar says that the war was fought by Sri Krishna. Not by using weapons, but by driving the chariot here and there, He conducted the war! In memory of that, this bronze statue is installed here. It is 50 Ft. high, 26 Ft. long and 25 Ft. wide. We may wonder, when we see the statue, as to, who was more important, Arjuna or Sri Krishna? Seeing Sri Krishna in the front, it appears, He is important. But since the owner of the chariot was Arjuna, he seems to be important. Thus this gives importance to both. At this spot, today's [5th November 2009] lecture on the remaining slokas will be seen. For the past about Three years, we have been studying Gita in this program. It is the duty of the lecturer [Sri UVe. Velukkudi Krishnan Swami] to convey his gratitude to those who taught him Gita and its interpretations. In that regard, he is grateful to Srimad Veda marga pratishtapanacharya ubhaya vedantacharya Sri Velukkudi Varadacharya Swami, who was his father. His father grasped these details from Srimad veda marga pratishtapanacharya ubhaya vedantacharya Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami.

vELvikkudi Swamy.jpgKarapankadu swamy with sishyas.jpg

Karappankadu is near Mannargudi. Kar + Appan + Kadu [கார் + அப்பன் + காடு]= Dark blue + Lord + forest. This place is called Neelambuja vanam and Krishna Aranyam. Here, the Lord Sri Abheeshta Varadaraja, along with Sri Perundevi Thayar, is gracing beneath Punyakoti Vimanam. Before circa 1900, Sri UVe Karappankadu Singaperumal Swami lived here, like a lion! He had learnt all shastras thoroughly well. He was scholar in, both Sanskrit and Tamil. His maternal grand son was Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami. He was born in 1906, in Panguni month, in Punarvasu star, like Sri Rama. He learnt all shastras from his maternal grand father. Sri Singaperumal Swami adopted his grandson Sri Venkatacharya, as his son. Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami also learnt from another scholar Karappankadu Sri Desika Varadacharya Swami, who later, came to Srirangam as head of Sriranga Narayana Jeer Mutt. Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami came to Chennai in 1930, and in Triplicane and in Mylapore, he had given numerous lectures. Even now, some living octogenarians, fondly remember those lectures. In 1971, he departed this world to reach Vaikuntam. His lectures on Gita, were a treat to the ears. With minimum time and minimum efforts, one could easily understand very difficult subjects. He also prepared the next line of scholars, to propagate our sampradhayam. He taught four such Vidwans, among whom was this lecturer's father UVe. Velukkudi Sri Varadacharya Swami. We can see a vintage photo of Sri Karappankadu Swami with his Four disciples, above. We will see about Velukkudi and about Sri Velukkudi Sri Varadacharya Swami, tomorrow, when this lecture series would conclude. Now, we will see some more slokas in Chapter 18. First, sloka 67:

idaṃ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana
na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yobhyasūyati 18.67

As Arjuna requested, the Lord Sri Krishna explained all the important meanings hidden in Upanishads, in all these 18 Chapters. Sri Krishna thought that while He had explained all these great secrets, without any reservation to Arjuna, for mere request, He felt that those should not be revealed to others just like that, and only those who showed interest and had Bhakti in Him, should be told. So, He advises Arjuna, not to reveal these secrets to the persons mentioned in sloka 67. It is not that the Lord wanted to keep it hidden from all; but, only interested persons should know. We can see in the sloka that as Sri Krishna lists the persons, stricter guarding of the secret is stipulated. Idam = this [great Gita Shastram], na atapaskaya = never to [those] without tapas or meditation. Arjuna thought that all were not that great, to perform tapas. Then, almost none will be able to know. Could not the Lord, slightly relax the condition? Kadacana = always, na = never, abhakaya = [to those] not devoted [to Sri Krishna]. Those, who do not have bhakti in Him, should not be told. Bhakti also is not that easy to get. That too, with the definition of Bhakti in Chapter 9, it was almost impossible for all. Could not He relax the condition further? Na ca asusrave = never to [those] uninterested in listening. Here also, Arjuna felt that in this fast world many might not have time to listen. Perhaps, if Gita is told, some might develop interest. Again, Sri Krishna, relaxes the condition. Na ca mam yobhyasuyati = never to one, who is jealous of Me [Sri Krishna]. If anyone has no love for Sri Krishna, he should never be told of Gita. These persons, out of jealousy, think of His auspicious qualities as bad qualities. These are the persons, who should not be told about Gita. In the next sloka, the Lord says that those who propagate Gita and its interpretations, are very dear to Him. The Lord says such persons will remain always with Him. They are given the same status as great Gyani! Sloka 68:

ya idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ madbhakteṣv abhidhāsyati
bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā mām evaiṣyaty asaṃśayaḥ 18.68

Esyati = attains, mam eva = Me [Sri Krishna] only, asamsaya = have no doubt. Ya = he, who, idam = this, paramam = supreme, guhyam = secret [of Gita, Moksha Shastra], madbhaktesa = among My [Sri Krishna's] devotees, abhidhasyati = preaches, with interpretations, mayi = to Me [Sri Krishna], param bhaktim = supreme devotion, krtva = done. Person, who preaches Gita with its meanings to His devotees, is considered as greatly devoted to the Lord. He will reach the Lord and there can be no doubt in that. Arjuna gets another doubt. In Gita it is told that Tatva viveka is to be acquired and attachment to body should be destroyed. We should have the Three Tyagas, Karma yoga, Gyana yoga, etc. We should know the greatness of the Lord. We have to acquire many good qualities. Then only, one could reach Him. Now, the Lord says that the reward for all these, preached in Gita, that is Moksha Prapti or attainment of Moksham, is given to him, who preaches Gita with its meaning, to others! Is it possible, Arjuna doubts. For this the Lord replies in the next sloka, 69:

na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaścin me priyakṛttamaḥ
bhavitā na ca me tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi 18.69

The Lord says that he, who preached Gita with its meaning, is liked by the Lord in the same way He liked those, who had already preached like that. Not only that; all those, who are going to preach, in future also would be liked by Him. There was nothing more pleasing to Lord. When we preach or think or study always, with its meaning, the Lord is pleased very much. Since the Lord is pleased, He uses His power to grant him Moksham. We have to note that by thinking of Gita and its meanings, Bhakti would spring spontaneously and Bhakti would enable reaching the Lord. Tasman manusyesu = all those persons [who preach Gita with its meanings] are, me priyakrttama = very much liked by Me [Sri Krishna], na kascin = none else. Bhavita = in future, tasmad anya = other than those [who preached Gita with its meanings], bhuvi = in this world, na priyatara = no one is liked [by Sri Krishna]. In the past also, there was none equal to him, who preached Gita, with its meanings, loved by the Lord; in future also, the Lord is going to like such persons preaching Gita with its meanings, and none else. So, Arjuna's doubt, whether by preaching Gita, whether Moksham was possible, is answered by the Lord; it is possible, because, constant thinking on Gita will generate Bhakti, which will mature to Parama Bhakti and make the person to reach the Lord. If we meditate on God, and if He decided, in a split second, our desires would be fulfilled. To get Bhakti, therefore, His blessings are needed, in spite of our many efforts. So, if He could be pleased, then anything is possible. By these Two slokas [68 and 69], the Lord reveals His love for those who preach Gita. Now, sloka 70:

adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃvādam āvayoḥ
jñānayajñena tenāham iṣṭaḥ syām iti me matiḥ 18.70

Arjuna gets the next doubt! It is OK that those preaching, get Moksham. What about ordinary people like us? After all, preacher could be very few and listeners would be much more. Each one of us do not have the capability to preach Gita. Arjuna wants to know, whether listeners had any benefit. Our Acharyas might get Moksham; what about the disciples? Sri Krishna says it is pleasing to listen to such great lectures. Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar says in his Tirukkural, 'selvatthut selvam sevi chelvam [செல்வத்துட் செல்வம் செவிச் செல்வம்]' - of all the wealth, listening is the greater wealth! After all, for the sake of Arjuna as a listener, the Lord delivered such a great Shastra! Ya = he, who, samvadam = conversation, avayo = between Us [Sri Krishna and Arjuna], imam dharmyam = this teaching [Moksha Shastram, detailing how to reach Moksham, like Gyana yoga, Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, Purushottama Vidya, etc.], adhyesyate = studies or recites or chants [Gita] with its meanings. It is not mere listening to this lecture series, Gita parayanam is over. For the rest of our lives, we should be constantly studying and chanting them. Me mati = My [Sri Krishna's] opinion is, that person worshiped the Lord by Gyana. Normally, we perform pooja, with materials like flower, etc. By chanting Gita with its meanings, or listening to such chantings, the Lord is worshiped by Gyana. Tena jnanayajnena = by that worship by Gyana [of listening to Gita with its meanings], aham = I [Sri Krishna] am, istah syam = very much pleased. This is His opinion. Is it that, all those, who listened to Gita lectures from many Acharyas, in the future would be liked by the Lord? The Lord says 'Yes' and says it is His opinion! He did not care about others' opinion! Next we see sloka 71:

śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca śṛṇuyād api yo naraḥ
sopi muktaḥ śubhāṃl lokān prāpnuyāt puṇyakarmaṇām 18.71

It is OK listening to Gita with its meanings. What about just listening to? The Lord has climbed down from the top: First, He wanted the person to have Bhakti in Him; or, at least, chant Gita, with its meanings; or else, to listen to with meanings; or, now He says, at least listen to the slokas! Our group of Three Thousand people assembled in Kurukshetra, had chanted all slokas. All of us listened to those slokas. Not only those, who joined the group; even those listening to the lecture series, also are blessed. The Lord did not specify that Gita slokas were to be listened to or chanted at any particular place. Benefit is same, wherever it is chanted or listened to. Sraddhavan = whoever is sincere [to the Lord], anasuyas ca = and does not have jealousy [in the Lord], srnuyad api = even mere hearing, mukta = is relieved of [papas in the way of Bhakti], prapnuyat = reaches, subham lokan = auspicious group of, punyakarmanam = [persons having performed] punya karma or noble deeds. In that group, this person will listen to Gita with its meanings and that will induce him to learn Gita, with its meanings; that will lead him to Bhakti, then Para Bhakti, Para Gyana and Parama Bhakti, and finally he will reach Moksham. Thus the greatness of the Preacher and Listener of Gita, is told by the Lord.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

BG 18.74

Ananyāś cintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ paryupāsate
teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yogakṣemaṃ vahāmy aham || (9.22)
We have seen this sloka earlier. The Lord says that if, we could always remember Him, He would certainly, provide us all welfare. But how are we to remember Him always. The simplest way is by Divya Nama Sankeerthanam. Singing His Divine names, in praise of Him, is the way. In that regard, Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam, is of great help to us.

Bhisma confronts Krishna in battle

Bhismadeva's Instructions on his death bed of arrows

The Lord Sri Krishna describes Bheeshma, as tiger among men. Bheeshma was always remembering Sri Krishna [anusmaranam]. We can worship Bheeshma at Kurukshetra. The place, where Bheeshma, preached Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam [SVS], to Yudhishtra and others, is Bheeshma Ghat or Bana Ganga [ it is about 5 KMs from Brahma Sarovar, on the way to Jyotisar].

See full size image

Gita is great, because it instructs us to chant Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam; and, Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam is great, because it was recommended by Gita! Both have the same purpose. But which is more sacred? Gita was born before Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam. Gita was delivered on the very first day of the Mahabharata war; while, Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam, was told after Bheeshma was pulled down and was lying on the bed of arrows, after the tenth day of the war! Since SVS was later, its greatness is more! Both are eyes to us, but SVS is our right eye! Nama Sankeertanam is essential for every one of us. Yudhishtra asks Bheeshma, six questions. In reply, Bheeshma says that listening to and chanting the Thousand Divine names of the Lord, is sure to redeem everyone. Nammalwar, Tirumangai Alwar and others have praised the sanctity of SVS. Sri Andal in Tiruppavai 3rd pasuram, mentions the greatness of singing His names. Even now, Sri Vishnu Sahasranama is reverberating in this place. Our group of Three Thousand persons, chanted Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam; which means His name has been chanted 3 Million times in half an hour! We are very fortunate that way. Now, we shall see more interpretation of sloka 66 of Chapter 18.
What Gita wanted to convey is in Sri Vishnu Saharanamam. One can reach the Lord by Bhakti Yoga. but, papas obstruct performing Bhakti yoga. We are incapable of undergoing the results of papa; nor, can we eliminate the papas, by atonements or prayacchittam. So, the Lord advises that if we abandon all prayacchitta efforts, by surrendering unto Him, then He would absolve us of those atonements, and release us from all papa, so that we can perform Bhakti yoga and reach Him. This is Anga Prapatti [Surrender as Auxiliary, to Bhakti] and was explained in the last lecture. What is Swatantra Prapatti? Will not Prapatti, by itself, fetch us Moksham? Yes. We do not need Bhakti yoga in between. Mere saranagati would fetch the Lord. Then, is Bhakti necessary? Let us see the meaning of this sloka, with Swatantra Prapatti. Masucha = do not worry. We had seen the description of Gyana yoga and Karma yoga, by the Lord in the earlier Chapters. It may look unsurmountable task to perform Karma yoga or Gyana yoga. Bhakti yoga seems to be impossible. Our sins are huge. Our capacity to do all these yogas, is very limited. But if we think we are ever dependent on Him [Paratantra], then is it not His responsibility to protect us? The Lord is too willing to protect us and so, should we not surrender this responsibility also to Him? This is what Sri Sita told Hanuman. Hanuman went to Lanka and found out Sri Sita in Ashoka gardens. He saw Her, conveyed the message of Sri Rama, and was about to take leave of Her. At that time, Hanuman had an idea. Why should he simply return and tell the Lord Sri Rama, that Sri Sita was in Lanka. Why not he carry Her on his back and present Her to Sri Rama? Hanuman conveyed his idea to Sri Sita. Why waste time in bringing the army of monkeys to fight Ravana and then rescue Her? Sri Sita replied that She very well knew, how to save Her from Ravana and She was capable of doing that. But, if She did so, it would be a disgrace on the valour of Sri Rama. As His dependent Wife, it was right only if Sri Rama rescued Her. Her chastity, could very well burn Ravana and entire Lanka. But She refrained from doing any such thing. Sri Rama had married Her, promising that He would be Her guardian at all times. So, it was Sri Rama's responsibility to rescue Her. Sri Rama should arrive at Lanka and after defeating Ravana, He should rescue Her and accompany Her to Ayodhya! This is the Dharma for both Him, as Husband and to Her, as Wife! From this episode, we have to understand that we are not responsible for our redemption. We should be free of swatantaryam or independence. Ahankaram or ego, should be totally absent. Abandoning everything, we should think, He was the only asylum for us. This saranagati is in Nivrutti marg or totally free from doing anything, and leaving the responsibility of fetching us Moksham to Him alone. This method would fetch us directly, without the need for Bhakti yoga. Tvam eva upaya me bhava iti prartanamati sharanagati - You are the only one, Who should be the means [to reach Him]. This prayer is saranagati. This simple Gyana is saranagati. This feeling should be in the root of our heart. By this, we do not have to seek any other, as means. So, why should we do any Karma yoga or Gyana yoga or Bhakti yoga? In fact, if we started any of them, it would amount to acting independently. It will make the Lord to feel sad? He is promising to help, then why seek any other recourse? That is why the Lord says, Sarva dharman parityajya = abandon all [Karma yoga, Bhakti Yoga, etc.]. This is a welcome direction. Because, we are incapable of doing any of these, Karma yoga or Bhakti yoga. But the Lord does not mean it that way. Even if one was capable of doing those, one should abandon all, Karma yoga, etc. Also, by saying abandon, it does not mean that, after performing saranagati, we can stop worshiping Him; we need not go to temples; we need not do any service to the lord, etc. Should we not have Bhakti, after saranagati? No. Bhakti is very much necessary, even after saranagati. In fact after saranagati, these persons should continue with Karma, Gyana and Bhakti. They are not to be performed as means for seeking Moksham; but, they are to be performed, because it is the order of the Lord; because, it would please Him; because, it was the way shown by our elders. After all, the Lord Himself had said in Gita that He was appearing every time, there was decline of Dharma. Would He ever, therefore, ask us to abandon our Karma, which is Dharma? After performing saranagati, we should continue to do our Karma and perform Bhakti, as service to the Lord and not as means for any reward. We have to do them for His pleasure alone. So, we have to abandon not the Karma or Bhakti, but expectation of any reward for the Karma or Bhakti. All Alwars had surrendered to the Lord; but, they continued with Bhakti. Granting Moksham was His responsibility; doing Bhakti is for His pleasure. Bhakti should not be the means. So, abandoning the thought that Karma or Bhakti, is means, we have to seek, mam ekam = only Me [Sri Krishna], saranam vraja = surrender, as means to attain [Him]. That is, we should consciously, be at His feet. The word 'only' is important. We should be convinced that He was the only rescue for us. That is no other action and no other devatas, are going to be our upaya or means. Here, we should be careful not to ever think that by our efforts, we surrendered unto Him. Even performing saranagati, is with His blessings only. Swami Koorattalwan says that even to utter the word 'sharanam', His blessings were needed! So, it is not correct to think that we performed saranagati and so we would be granted Moksham. But, it is His will and blessings, alone. We have to simply pray, that is all. Granting Moksham is His will. Then, why saranagati? It is like appetite for food, as compared by elders. If we want to eat food, we must have the appetite. Then only, we could enjoy the food. Similarly, we are not granted moksham, just because we have done saranagati. But, out of compassion, He rewards us with Moksham. At the same time, by doing saranagati, we show that we were ready to be targets for His compassion. In other words, we remain qualified for Him to grant Moksham. So, even that saranagati does not become a means; but, He, and He alone, grants Moksham. The first line indicates, what we are to do. The Lord tells in the second line, what he is going to do. Aham = I [Sri Krishna, Who is all powerful and with all qualities, which Arjuna or any of us never possessed. Sri Krishna is possessing the power to grant Moksham], sarva papeya = from all papas, obstructing, in realizing Moksham, mokshayishyami = release, tva = you [Arjuna]. He comforts Arjuna not to worry, because of Moksham being difficult to get; because sins are very large and strong; because samsaram is so painful. Arjuna or we have very limited capacity to remove sins, but since the Lord is taking full responsibility and since He can clear all past, present and future papa, Arjuna and we need not worry. Earlier, in saranagati as Pravrutti Dharma, the Lord assured He would remove all papa in the way for performing Bhakti. But now, with saranagati as Nivrutti Dharma, the Lord says that all papas in the way of attaining Moksham would be removed. The Lord, thus, shows that He was the means or upaya; and, this sloka is famous as Charama sloka. Who can perform saranagati? Those, who are worried, about samsaram? Eligibility is mere worry about getting Moksham and to get relieved of samsaram. Result of saranagati, is removal of worry. If we still worry, it means that we have no faith in His words.
We have tried to understand the interpretation of Charama sloka, in a small way. We will see some more slokas on tomorrow and day after. With that, our lecture on Gita Shastra would conclude.

Monday, November 2, 2009

BG 18.73

We are reaching the end of this program Kannanin Aaramudhu. The 66th sloka of Chapter 18, of Gita is known famously, as Charama sloka. That sloka is:

sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja
ahaṃ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ 18.66

In this sloka, the Lord asks all of us not to be worried. We are going to study this sloka, in the very same spot, where Gita was born, in Kurukshetra. Already, we visited Brahma Sarovar. From there, we have arrived at Jyot Sarovar, from where today's [3rd November 2009] lecture is held. This is the place, where the Lord preached Gita to Arjuna.

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This is known in this place as Jyotisar. It is the spring of Gyana or pond of knowledge. We acquire Gyana from Gita. He, who gets Gyana from Gita, becomes equal to the Lord in Dharma. That is, in Gyana, power, unaffected by papa/punya, birthless, deathless, hungryless, oldageless, diseaseless, etc., he is like God. Such is the Gyana provided by Gita Shastram. Gita is reverberating through out the world. In every Bhakta's mind it is deeply rooted. Such a great source of Gyana, originated in a small place. It is written here, that the banyan tree is the witness to the discourse of the Lord. It is also written as 'Gita Upadesha Sthal'. It does not mean that the Lord lectured at the very same spot; but the entire Kshetram is very sacred. Anything done here, is considered as Dharma. Yagna, Dhanam, Tapas or anything performed here, rewards us in many ways. In this place, the two armies of Kauravas and Pandavas, assembled. Pandava army of Seven Akshauhini and Kaurava army of Eleven Akshauhuni, were ready to fight. If so many millions of people had to assemble, we can imagine, how vast this place should have been! Amidst the Two armies, Sri Krishna preached Gita. We can see idol of Sri Krishna preaching to Arjuna, here. Arjuna is seated on the top, with folded hands, and Sri Krishna is sitting at the bottom, and preaching. In 2.7, Arjuna told the Lord that he was not knowing which was Dharma and whch was Adharma, and requested the Lord to clarify. We also, in our lives are confused many times at many places with many persons. Arjuna was confused as to whether to kill his brothers and other relatives and friends. It was not that Arjuna did not possess the skill to fight them. He was confused, whether to get Kingdom, after killing them. His mind was filled with emotion and compassion. So, he requested the Lord to advise him the best and beneficial to him. He fell at His Divine feet and prayed for proper advice. We have to learn from Gita that if we had faith in the Lord and prayed Him, He would certainly lead us properly. At no time, we should have the feeling that we were doing ourselves. We should be firm that He was the protector and that He would lead us. It might appear that the Lord was finally telling something illogical; we should remember that we have crossed all those logical steps and arrived at this concluding part. Swami Shankaracharya, that is why, says that again and again rebirths would not be salvation; but only singing Sri Govinda's Divine names with devotion and love. We are fortunate that more than 3,000 persons have assembled here to chant Gita, together. Each letter in Gita, was spoken by the Lord and so have divine power. In Gita, the most important sloka is Charama sloka. The interpretation for this sloka could be told for even 100 days. But, we will see to the extent time permits. This sloka defines saranagati. Before we see the meaning of this sloka, we have to see an introduction to this sloka. Saranagati is of Two types:
*SWATANTRA PRAPATTI स्वतंत्र प्रपत्ति
*ANGA PRAPATTI. अंग प्रपत्ति
Prapatti means saranagati or ultimate surrender. Sharanamiti aagati: Saranagati: - [The Lord's Divine] feet are asylum, and [we] come to surrender. We have to very carefully note the following explanations. One method is, to seek the Divine feet of the Lord, as means or upaya, for Moksham, and surrendering. That is Saranagati at His feet, is means, upaya, prapakam or way. That is, the Lord Himself carries us to Moksham. This is called Swatantra Prapatti. That is, saranagati, independently, by itself, fetches Moksham and no other effort is expected from us. In the other method, saranagati is not used to get Moksham. We know that we could reach Moksham, by Bhakti also. Bhakti means Bhakti Yoga. By practicing Karma and Gyana Yoga, we reach Bhakti Yoga. And, by Bhakti Yoga, one can reach the Lord. Thus, Bhakti becomes the means or way or upaya to reach the Lord. This is, what we had been seeing all these days, in Gita. Puranas say that Moksham could be attained by Bhakti or Prapatti. Latter is known as Swatantra Prapatti. In Bhakti marg, we are seeking something other than the Lord, as means to reach Him. We have to remember that to do Bhakti Yoga, we should have done Karma and Gyana yoga. We should know all our limitations also. We may think we are all Bhaktas. We have to remember that our present Bhakti, is not what the Lord told in Gita. The Lord had been telling Arjuna all about Bhakti. Those words should make us realize our limitations and so it was necessary for the Lord to tell in detail about Karma Yoga, Gyana Yoga and Bhakti Yoga. Two slokas back, the Lord asked Arjuna to surrender. There was a pause, and we also ran through all the Chapters to recapitulate what we learnt all these days. Arjuna thought that Bhakti Yoga was quite pleasant and so decided to opt for that. Seeing that, the Lord asked in 18.65, to worship Him alone, and get salvation. But now in sloka 66, the Lord asks Arjuna to surrender to Him. We may get the doubt, whether the Lord was recommending saranagati or bhakti to get Moksham? Why this alternating words from the Lord? In 18.62, when the Lord suggested to surrender, Arjuna did not surrender. Arjuna did not show any eagerness. We should know that saranagati is Nivrutti Marg and Bhakti is Pravrutti Marg. Pravrutti means taking lots of efforts and doing many actions. Bhakti requires a lot of effort from us. In saranagati, we move away from any efforts and simply pass on the responsibility, to the Lord. No effort is nivrutti. It is like an infant being looked after by the mother. The child takes no effort for its welfare and growth. In fact, if a child is harmed, people would blame the mother only, for not taking precautions! Similarly, if we, children of the Lord, come to Him and surrender, the Lord as a Mother, has all the responsibilities! The Lord is willing to take the responsibilities, provided we seek asylum. Unfortunately, many of us think that we could take care of ourselves! Similarly, many of us think that we could reach Moksham, by our own efforts. Therefore, in Bhakti, there will be a little of ahankaram! Seeing both, we might think that when saranagati is so easy, would there be anyone choosing Bhakti, a difficult path, to reach Moksham? Yes, there are persons desiring to follow pravrutti marg or Bhakti, to reach Him. They have some traces of Ahankaram. But persons without any Ahankaram, would choose Nivrutti marg or Saranagati, only. Arjuna was a Kshatriya, with great skill and fame. He would naturally, choose the path, where efforts were needed. So, he was passive to saranagati. The Lord suggested, therefore, Bhakti marg in sloka 18.65! But Bhakti is not easy to follow. The Lord Himself said earlier, that it was very rare to find a person in Bhakti and saying that Sri Vasudeva was all for him. Bhakti Yoga needs so many preparations. So many hurdles, like papas of past karmas, would prevent practicing Bhakti. Swam Koorattalwan says that accumulating papa is very easy; but to wash them off, it takes even, many births. When Arjuna thought that he could choose Bhakti yoga, he found that past karma effects were very great hurdles. He was perplexed and did not know what to do! How to remove all those hurdles? Papa could be cleared by two methods: 1. To expend the papa by undergoing its results. This is almost impossible, as even one papa may need many births to undergo all its effects! 2. Prayacchittam or atonement or expiation, is the second method. One has to atone for the papa committed and make amends, as specified in Shastras. This is also difficult, as we might not know, what is the atonement for which papa, and atonement itself might consume many births. Thus clearing papas to start Bhakti, seemed impossible to Arjuna and he was worried. This is the Third time Arjuna was worried. First, at the start of the war, he was worried as to how to kill his relatives. Next, in Chapter 16, he was worried whether he was Deva or Asura, and the Lord cleared his worries. Now, for the Third time Arjuna was worried. Arjuna did not know how to start Bhakti yoga. For this, the Lord gives the remedy in sloka 66. Ma sucha = do not worry! Sarva dharman parityajya = leave all prayacchitta dharma or atonements. He is not asking Arjuna to leave all his duties or Karma, but only the atonements needed to clear his papa. Mam ekam saranam vraja = surrender at My [Sri Krishna's] feet only, as means, aham = I [Sri Krishna, the Almighty and All Capable] will, mokshayishyami = relieve, tva = you [Arjuna, incapable of doing atonements], sarva papebya = from all sins obstructing [from performing Bhakti], . So, in lieu of Prayacchitta Dharmam, Arjuna should surrender to the Lord, to start Bhakti yoga. Prayacchitta would destroy papas, in the way of performing Bhakti. The Lord says that He would destroy those papas, if He surrendered unto Him. Arjuna could then start Bhakti and reach Moksham. That is, saranagati helps in Arjuna performing Bhakti; and by Bhakti alone he could reach Moksham. That is, saranagati or prapatti, independently, is not the means for Moksham here. It assisits in perfroming Bhakti, and through Bhakti, he would attain Moksham. Prapatti is just an angam or subsidiary or auxilary, to Bhakti, only. This Prapatti is called Anga Prapatti. This is what is specified in Gita. We will wait to see how saranagati, independently, fetches Moksham.

Sunday, November 1, 2009

BG 18.72

Dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ |
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata sañjaya||
We heard this sloka, in this program, some Three years back as the First sloka of Gita. Kurkshetram is Dharma Kshetram; Dharma grows in Kurukshetra. Long back we saw this First sloka, and now to listen to the last few slokas of Gita, we have arrived at Kurukshetra! This Kshetram has many glories. As if introducing them all, is this Brahma Sarovar, at which, today's [2nd November 2009] lecture is held.

File:Brahma Sarovar.jpg

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This Pushkarini, elevates the image of this Kshetram. Brahma sarovar means lake of Brahma or lake which identifies Brhamam. It is about 3,600 Ft. length and 1.800 Ft. width. We can imagine its surface area. It is about 12Ft. deep. There are many ghats like Bhisma ghat, Arjun ghat, Yudhishtra ghat, Hanuman ghat, etc.
Kurukshetram gamishyami Kurukshetre vasamyaham |
Evam satami bruyat sotitatai: pramuchyate ||
Even mere mentioning that one wanted to go to Kurukshera or to live in Kurukshetra, one gets all sins washed away. If so, what benefits one would have, if one were to actually live in Kurukshetra? We should, in our lifetime, at least once, go to Kurukshetra.
Pamsanopi kurukshetre vayuna samuditita: |
Atidushkruta karmanam vayam atanti paramangatim ||
Air carries dust from Kurukshetra, and those dust have the capacity to wipe out our sins. Is it then necessary to mention that those, who live there, would get Moksham?
Manasat stuti kamasya kurukshetram yudhishtiram |
Papa vipramsyanti brahmalokam sa vasyati ||
Even mere desire in mind to go to Kurukshetra, one reaches supreme place. In such a glorious place Kurukshetra, Veda Vyasa published Mahanharata. In Badarikashram, we saw that in a cave Vyasa wrote Mahabharata; in Naimisharanyam, he preached it to the disciples. But it was published First, in Kurukshetra. Lord Brahma taught Vedas to Sapta Rishis. After learning them well, they started chanting, in Kurukshetra. For Indra and other Devas, this was the place for performing yagna. Many have been coming to Kurukshetra, being a sacred place, for performing Yagna, Tapas, Charities, etc. This place got the name Kurukshetra, as it was established by King Kuru. He wanted to make this, a fertile land for growing Dharma, and so, started tilling the soil with his golden plough. Indra wanted to know, why the King was ploughing and so, he appeared before him and asked. The King replied that he was going to cultivate the crop of Ashtanga Dharma. Indra asked how he was going to do that. The King replied that he had the seeds for that Dharma. He, then mentioned the seeds:
  1. Tapas - meditation.
  2. Satyam - speaking truth always.
  3. Kshama - patience or forbearance, even when provoked.
  4. Daya - compassion, for all living beings.
  5. Saucham - purity in mind, speech and body.
  6. Dhanam - charities.
  7. Yogam - always meditating on God. And,
  8. Brahmacharyam - behaviour in accrdance with Shastras.
Indra was amused and left the place. Everyday, the King ploughed Seven krosas. On Seventh day, as he finished ploughing the 48th krosa, the Lord Sri Maha Vishnu, appeared befoer him. Like Indra, He also asked why the King was ploughing the earth. King replied that he had the seeds for Ashtanga Dharma and he wanted to cultivate Dharma. The Lord asked the King to surrender himself and those seeds. The King understood that the Lord wanted him to perform saranagati. As told in Gita, it is He, Who protected Dharma. The King surrendered the seeds and himself at the Divine feet of the Lord! Pleased with that, the Lord said that whatever the King desired would happen in that place. The King desired that Dharmas like Tapas, Kshama, Daya, etc., should flourish very well in that place. He desired sanathana Dharma should always be present. Any noble deed done here should yield manifold results. It should be able to guide to Moksham. When the King prayed like this, the Lord blessed him, with all such desires. From that time this place is known as Kurukshetra. Whatever was done here, became Dharma. We can see Gita Parayanam being performed always. Knowing its glory, Sri Krishna selected this place to preach Gita. Similarly, Bheeshmacharya chose to preach Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam. We are going to visit those places and also perform collective parayana there! Thus, Gita, Sri Vishnu sahasranamam, Vedas and Mahabharata, all started from here. In this Brahma sarovar, Duryodana was hiding in his last days. Bhima killed him after he came out of this. Yudhishtra and others performed Tarpanam, rites for deceased ones, for having killed many in the war. It is also said that Sri Rama and Sri Sita came by Pushpaka Vimanam, to this place and performed Pitru Tarpanam. Sri Krishna also came with His wives and with Nandagopa and other Yadavas, and performed Pitru Tarpanam. When Sahadeva, selected an Amavasya, to start the war, Sri Krishna came and did Tarpanam here. From here, we will First see the summary of Chapter 18; also, we will see slokas 64 and 65, after which the most importane sloka [Charama sloka] was delivered by the Lord. Now, summary:

¯ı´svare kartr. t¯a buddhih.sattvop¯adeyat¯antime |
svakarma parin.¯ama´sca ´s¯astras¯ar¯artha ucyate || (22)

In this last Chapter [18], essence of Shastra, is told. That is Bhagavad Gita Shastra saram or essence. That is Bhakti, which is the essence. That Bhakti is got by, the transformation of one's own duty or Karma yoga. Arjuna's duty was to fight in the war. Doing his duty, would get matured and mind will be purified. That will result in atman sakshatkaram, and realization of atman that it is servant of the Lord. Thereby, ahankaram and mamakaram would be destroyed. This will further mature and result in Bhakti yoga. That would transform into Para Bhakti, which would result in Para Gyana and further, to Parama Bhakti. Ultimately, it would fetch the Lord Himself. So, sva karma parinamasya, means one has to do his specified duties. But, while doing this Karma, without the Three attachments, but with the conscience that the Lord was doing and so He was the Karta. We should have only sattva quality. The Lord had told that for each of these Three qualities - sattvam, rajas and tamas - Yagna, Tapas, dhanam and food habits, varied. Now, He says that we should follow only sattva quality and rajas and tamas qualities were to be abandoned. Only Sattva Yagna, Tapas, Dhanam and food habits were to be followed. This is explained in the last Chapter. In this Chapter, the Lord classifies Gyana into Three - satvika gyana, rajasa gyana and tamasa gyana. That Gyana, which makes one to view all equally, is Sattva Gyana. He does not see variance among atman. But seeing difference exhibited by bodies, is Rajasa Gyana. In Tamasa Gyana, one does not know the purpose and its feasibility of any action. We have seen persons indulging in useless activities. Gyana , which induces a person to do such activities, is Tamasa Gyana. Similarly, the Lord classified Karmas and Karta, into Three. If one did a karma, knowing its purpose and with the Three Tyaga, then one is Satvika Karta. But if an action is done for publicity and fame, then he was Rajasa Karta. Doing without any use and torturing others, is Tamasa Karta. In the beginning of this Chapter, Arjuna raised a query. Are Sanyasa and Tyaga, same or different? Is abandoning Karma, sanyasa or renouncing life? The Lord started replying. Tyaga and Sanyasa are one and the same. Abandoning Dharma or Karma, is not Tyaga. One should be performing one's nitya and naimittika karmas always. Some people assume that since they had acquired Gyana and become Gyanis, they need not have to perform Karmas like Pitru tarpanam or Shraddham, etc. According to what the Lord had stated in Chapter 18, He did not support this assumption. Nitya and naimittika karmas have to be performed and Dharma had to be followed. Because, many hurdles in reaching Moksham, are removed by these only. Karmas should not be sacrificed but only the results are to be sacrificed. We will have to abandon the feeling that we did that karma. And, we have to abandon the feeling that the karma was for us. These are only called Tyaga or Sanyasa. After expalining sattvam, rajas and tamas, the Lord told sloka 18.62. He said that Arjuna [and also we] should surrender to the Lord Sriman Narayana. The Lord waited to observe whether Arjuna was responding and say 'I surrender'. But, no, Arjuna kept quiet. The Lord thought that perhaps Arjuna was not interested. Then He told sloka 18.63, and mentioned that He had told most secret of the Shastras. He had told Karma yoga, Gyana yoga, Bhakti yoga, the Secret of His Avatar, how to do yoga, glory of Bhakta, about His wealth, showed His Viswaroopam, about Achit-Chit- Iswara entities, about the Lord as Purushottama, about who Devas and Asuras were, advised to follow noble persons' way of life, superiority of sattva quality, etc. Without any exception the Lord told all, which were to be told to Arjuna. He then gave the choice for Arjuna to choose and do. Still, Arjuna did not utter 'sharanam' to the Lord! Then, the Lord started the sloka 64:

sarvaguhyatamaṃ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ
iṣṭosi me dṛḍham iti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam 18.64

Tato vakshyami = I [Sri Krishna] am going to tell you more, te hitam = beneficial to you [Arjuna], sarvaguhyatamam = of all [Karma yoga, Gyana yoga and Bhakti yoga], most important secret, bhuya = again, srnu = listen, me paramam vaca = My [Sri Krishna's] superior words. Is it because Sri Krishna is interested in what He was to tell? Or, was there none to listen to, and so was He trying to tell Arjuna? No. Because, istosi me drdham iti = [Arjuna was] most dear to Me [Sri Krishna]. Therefore, He wanted to tell that, which was beneficial to Arjuna. This is the gap, the Lord gave for Arjuna to react! In sloka 62, He wanted Arjuna to surrender unto Him. In sloka 63, He gave time and asked Arjuna to choose and do. In sloka 64, the Lord found that Arjuna was not willing to surrender. If he was to do saranagati, he should realize that he should destroy ahankaram, mamakaram, that he was always dependent on the Lord. But Arjuna is habituated to doing himself. Therefore, the Lord decided to tell him again, in 18.64. In sloka 65, the Lord again tells about Bhakti yoga:

manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru
mām evaiṣyasi satyaṃ te pratijāne priyosi me 18.65

Sri Krishna says, with a promise, as Arjuna was, priyosi me = My [Sri Krishna's] dear [cousin]. Manmana bhava = have mind [thoughts] in Me [Sri Krishna], mad bhakta = with [love] devotion unto Me [Sri Krishna], mad yaji = worship Me [Sri Krishna, with dedication], mam namaskuru = do prostrate [by all three means - body, speech and mind] unto Me [Sri Krishna], mam evaisyasi = [if done like this] [Arjuna] would reach Me [Sri Krishna] only, satyam te pratijane = it is true and [ Sri Krishna] promises [and have no doubt]. Because, Arjuna is dear to Him, He would tell all these. Thus, Bhakti yoga is reiterated. By telling Arjuna to always meditate on Him, the Lord says about Dhyanam. By continuously thinking of Him, one will realize His glory and fame. It will give raise to love. Dhyanam with love makes it more useful. That is Bhakti. We will be induced to perform pooja and worship Him. Mad yaji also indicates all such sacred duties in the house and in temples and Kshetrams. Doing like this, one reaches Him. The Lord makes a promise that what He told was truth. It is not that, only Sri Rama was always speaking truth; Sri Krishna was also a Satyavadi! His words would never be false or empty. Now, Arjuna was to do Bhakti yoga. Did he start Bhakti yoga? Or, was he in confusion and worried? How did the Lord remove his worries? The answer is in the next sloka [66], for which we shall wait.