Tuesday, June 30, 2009

BG 17.15

When the Lord took Sri Trivikrama Avatar and when His Divine foot entered Satya loka, lord Brahma washed the foot with the water, which was Sri Pada Theertham, and became Ganga. Of the many names Ganga is called, Vishnupati is one! It means Ganga flows from Sri Vishnu's Divine feet. Swami Koorattalwan says this in one sloka. Vishnu padam means either Lord Sri Vishnu's Divine feet or His abode. By drinking or bathing or just seeing Vishnupati, we can reach Vishnupadam! We are in Vishnu Prayag, a very important place en route to Badrikashram.

We have started to travel uphill, from Tiruppiridi. First we come across Vishnu Prayag. Route is zig zag. On one side we find steep hill and on the other side it is the dangerous steep ground below. Even a small careless driving can tumble the vehicle deep down below. But the drivers are quite skillful in driving. We allay our fears by chanting Gita and Vishnu Sahasranamam! We feel highly nervous when the vehicle crosses hair-pin bends in the road! We think that these drivers have understood Gita correctly! They say that Sri Badrnath is protecting them and they are confident that the journey will always be safe! In fact to get that confidence we are studying Gita and Sahasranamam! At Vishnu Prayag, is the confluence of rivers Vishnu Ganga and Alakananda. Here, sage Narada meditated for a long time. We can see one river is in mud color, while the other is in pale green color. It is like disturbed mind and clear mind. Can they come together? We should not see in that way. Normally, we have disturbed mind in worldly affairs; whereas our mind should be disturbed, when we hear stories of the Lord. We seem to be least disturbed when we hear Sri Krishna is threatened by demons. We should be clear of worldly affairs. Now, we further travel up and reach Pandukeshwar. Since we have to see many places here, we will spend more time while returning. Next, we reach Hanuman Chatti.

At this place Hanuman meditated. After this place is Badarikashram. At all these places traffic is regulated by gate system. All these places are controlled by Military personnel. Gates are opened at specific times only, enabling movement of vehicles. To reach Hanuman Chatti, we have to cross an iron bridge. When vehicles travel on this, we can hear thundering sounds! While going this sound can be interpreted as the reflection of our eagerness to worship Lord Sri Badrinath; and while returning, same sounds reflect our yearning for one more Darshan! We worship Hanuman to make our trip successful! After Hanuman Chatti, the journey is steeper! In 18KMs, we gain height by 1500 Metres or about 4500 Feet! Now we have arrived at the welcome arch of Badarikashram!
See full size image

Our long awaited dream comes true! We will go inside after seeing sloka 13. In slokas 11, 12 and 13, the Lord tells about Satvika Yagna, Rajasa Yagna and Tamasa Yagna respectively. We will see Tamasa Yagna in sloka 13:

vidhihīnam asṛṣṭānnaṃ mantrahīnam adakṣiṇam
śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate 17.13

That is Tamasa Yagna has, vidhi hinam = without rules. That is Yagna is performed not as prescribed or permitted by great Acharyas or Rishis or Bruhaspati. One should not do yagna as he liked. Asrstannam = with materilas not procured in honest ways. If we want to perform a Yagna, we need many people like Ritviks, Hota, Udgata, etc., and we have to provide them with proper Dakshina [remuneration]. We need materials for performing yagna and to feed the guests. It means expenditure. The money and materials for this expenditure must have been earned in honest ways. We can not perform Yagna to compensate for unethically earned wealth. It is not like in business, where set-off is practiced! Mantrahinam = mantras not properly or adequately chanted. All persons involved have to chant mantras sincerely. In marriages, these days, lots of money are spent. But the bridegroom would not have chanted mantras properly. What is the use of spending so much money? With Agni as witness, we should ensure that mantras are chanted and repeated properly. While all our friends and relatives would vanish by the next day, chanted mantras would always remain with us and protect us. In every such religious rites, we should take all out efforts to chant mantras sincerely. Adaksinam = by not giving the remuneration to various persons in the performance of Yagna. We can not perform Yagna without dakshina or remuneration. In holy places like Badarikashram, there are many noble persons performing meditation. People search for them and offer whatever is possible. Those persons never asked for anything. Sraddhavirahitam = without earnestness to perform. Saying that he had no interest but doing for others' sake or giving maney to perform yagna and not participating, are all in Tamasa Yagna. Yajnam = such Yagnas are, paricaksate = considered, tamasam = Tamasa type.

BG 17.14

At present wSee full size imagee are in Joshimath or Joshimutt, on the way to Badarikashram.

Joshimath is now counted as Tiruppiridi, one of the 108 Divya desams. Here, Lord Sri Narasimha is in seated pose. One of the special features of this place is that Sri Badarikashram is closed for Six months during winter. During that time the Lord Sri Badarinath is brought and kept in this temple and all daily poojas are performed. That itself is a great honour for this place. One of the notable characteristic of Tirumangai Alwar is that he would visit personally any temple before praising it. Also, this Alwar has maintained a geographical order in visiting various temples. But in Periya Tirumozhi, in the second decade itself Alwar praises Tiruppiridi, and then in the subsequent decade praises Badarikashram! From this order it appears Tiruppiridi should have been at a higher place than Badarikashram, is it not? But Joshimath, which is now considered as Tiruppiridi, is well below Badarikashram. From Joshimath, one has to cross Vishnuprayag, Pandukeshvar, Hanumanchatti and then reach Badarikashram. Therefore a doubt arises whether the Alwar would have first come here and then climbed up to reach Badarikashram and then would have gone to Salagramam in Nepal. Another doubt is that while praising Badarikashram, Tirumangai Alwar never forgets to praise Ganga also. Perialwar also while praising Kandam known as Kadinagar [Kandam ennum Kadinagar கண்டம் என்னும் கடிநகர்], which is present Devaprayag, praises Ganga river. Because both these places are on the banks of Ganga. But, while praising Tiruppiridi, Tirumangai Alwar never mentions about Ganga, though Joshimath is on the banks of Ganga! Therefore, one wonders whether Joshimath is Tiruppiridi or not. Also in the pasuram on Tiruppridi, Alwar mentions the presence of a great lake. In Joshimath, no lakes are seen and only Ganga is flowing. So, is Tiruppiridi not Joshimath, but a place higher than Badarikashram, away from Ganga but near a lake? This appears to be the opinion of many research scholars. Which could be that place? A possibility is a place near Manasarovar lake, presently in Tibet. Mount Kailash is north of Manasarovar lake. It seems on this lake birds like swans used to fly over. While Badarikashram is at a height of 10,000 Feet, Manasarovar lake is at a height of about 17,000 Feet. If Tiruppiridi was near Manasarovar, then Tirumangai Alwar could have taken the route as follows: First Tiruppiridi at Manasarovar, then coming down to Badarikashram, then proceeding East to Salagramam in Nepal, then to Naimisharanyam and then Ahobilam in Andhra Pradesh! Also in the pasurams on Tiruppiridi, Alwar mentions the presnce of forests, wild animals, etc., which are not to be seen in Joshimath! Let us see a couple of pasurams to appreciate the description od nature in them. In those pasurams Alwar mentions frequently the word 'imayatthul [இமையத்துள்= inside Himalayas], which word is not seen in the pasurams on Badarikashram or Kandam ennum Kadinagar. He says in pasuram 1.2.1, 'peeli ma mayil nadam cheyum thadam chunai [பீலி மாமயில் நடம் செய்யும் தடம் சுனை]', meaning that when clouds climb up Himalayas, peacocks on the banks of great lake, dance! In pasuram 1.2.6, 'panangal aayiramudayan nallavaravanai pallikol paramavenru... [பணங்கள் ஆயிரம் உடையான் நல்லவரவணை பள்ளி கொள் பரமாவென்று...], meaning that the Lord is reclining on the Thousand hooded snake, Adisesha, Supreme Lord [Parama Purusha]. The Lord of Tiruppiridi is Sri Parama Purusha [ஸ்ரீ பரம புருஷா] and Sri Thayar is Sri Parimalavalli [ஸ்ரீ பரிமளவல்லி தாயார்]. Vimanam is Govardhana vimanam [கோவர்த்தன விமானம்]. But the Lord at Joshimath is Sri Narasimha in seated pose!


While Sri Narasimha is seated here, Alwar has mentioned reclining Sri Parama Purusha! Back to pasuram 1.2.6, Alwar asks his mind to go to Tiruppiridi, where fragrant 'madavi [similar to jasmine]' flowers are there. Madhavi is also called 'kurukkatti [குருக்கத்தி]', which is a creeper. It seems these creepers were growing up and wanted to cling to something. At that time clouds were passing and so the creeper caught hold of the clouds to further spread. With clouds trying to pass, there was a tug-of-war between the creepers and the clouds! In the process all the buds blossomed and plenty of kurukkatti flowers were seen. Swarms of bees came to suck the honey in these flowers! Bees thanked the clouds and the creepers for their fight, as they had enough honey! But Swami Periyavacchan Pillai does not see mere nature in this pasuram! Sri Thayar is Sri Parimalavalli Thayar, that means Sri Thayar Herself is radiating fragrance! She is the Creeper and the Lord is the Cloud! She stops the Lord and persuades to look at the devotees and pardon them! The Lord, seeing the great many sins committed by the devotees, wants to go away; but He is pulled by Sri Thayar, the Creeper. Devotees are like the bees, benefited and sing songs in praise of the Divine Couple, which is like the humming of bees! In pasuram 1.2.8, Alwar says that there are great serpents in the place, waiting in the dark nights, yawning, and awaiting prey. Buses stop for a short time in Joshimath, for the gates to open to proceed further. In that gap, we also worship the Lord, before continuing our journey! Now we will see sloka 12:

abhisaṃdhāya tu phalaṃ dambhārtham api caiva yat
ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṃ yajñaṃ viddhi rājasam 17.12

The Lord is describing the Three types of Yagna [according to the Three qualities]. Here He mentions about Rajasa Yagna. Satvika Yagna is performed as prescribed in Shastras, with prescribed materials and with prescribed mantras, with the sole objective of His pleasure and with no other desire in rewards. Abhisamdhaya tu phalam = in results other than His happiness. That is desiring in worldly gains, like more wealth, good children and family, etc. Dambhartham = for publicity. Just to show off, yagnas are performed by some. Yagna should be performed as it is prescribed in shastras and for the happiness of God. Bharatasreshtha = noble among Bharata dynasty [Arjuna], ijyate = any yagna performed like this [for worldly gains and for publicity], viddhi = understand, yajnam rajasam = [they are] Rajasa Yagna! These Yagnas performed for inferior rewards and for fame, are to be avoided. We now leave Joshimath and Tiruppiridi, wherever it is, and proceed to Sri Badrinath!

Sunday, June 28, 2009

BG 17.13

After seeing Haridwar and surroundings, we have started our journey on Himalaya mountains, in this serial Kannanin Aramudu program. Earlier it was told that Haridwar is about 1000 Feet above ground, while our destination Badarikashram is at about 10,000 Feet height. We are accompanied in our journey by Ganga mata. In some places she flows very swiftly; in some other places she falls down from a height. In some places she is unseen. While speaking about glory of Ganga, Ten special attributes are mentioned in Puranas. ' Ganga saraswati komal yamuna sarayu pati iravati neela uttarahi poorva vahini' - according to this sloka east flowing rivers originating from Himalayas are Nine. Ganga is the leader among them! Her attributes are:
  1. Seetatvam - coolness. Those bathing are refreshed.
  2. Swadutvam - doing good for all those drinking Ganga water.
  3. Nirmalatvam - always clear.Those bathing are also cleansed.
  4. Atyanta ruchyatvam - sweet to drink.
  5. Patyatvam - diet like to cure diseases.
  6. Pavanatvam - very sacred and pure.
  7. Papa haaritvam - absolves sins accumulated over many births.
  8. Trishna moha dvamsavatvam - destroys desire and delusion.
  9. Deepamatvam - illuminates well our body, mind and atman.
  10. Pragya dharirvam - develops our knowledge and cultivates Bhakti.
If we do any karma on the banks of such a river, Ganga, the results will be multiplied. 'Yagno dhanam tapa: satyam shraddham cha sthira poojanam gangayam yatkrutam sarvam koti koti gunam bhavet' - By doing yagna, gifts, meditation or poojas for ancestors or devas, on the banks of Ganga would bring billion times rewards to the performer. As we go higher and higher and look down, we find at some places crops are cultivated on the hill slope by cutting steps. As we look up we find many hills adjoining each other. Tirumangai Alwar, while traveling these places on his horse, Adalma, back, has described the beauty in many pasurams. He calls his mind to quickly come to go to Tiruppiridhi [திருப்பிரிதி]. He says that the trees here are tall enough to touch the clouds! On the other side he saw tigers roaming! It seems Devas descend down from heaven to bathe and gather flowers to worship the Lord, with the Thousand divine names! Tiruppiridi is the name of Joshimutt. Alwar says that Ganga flows in Himalayas with fragrance. From Gangotri, she starts and reaches Bindusaras, then as Bhagirathi she arrives at Devaprayag, and then flows to Haridwar and then to Kashi. On one side of Badrikashram is Naraynadri hills. From there Alakananda river flows and joins Bhagirati at Devaprayag. Now, we will see sloka 11 of Chapter 17. In slokas 8, 9 and 10, the Lord mentioned the types of food liked by satva, rajo and tamo quality persons. From that we learn that we should eat satva type of food only and avoid food sought by rajo and tamo quality persons. From now on the Lord is going to mention 9 slokas in Three Triplets. Three types of yagna, tapas and dhanam are mentioned. In them satva type of yagna, rajo type of yagna and tamo type of yagna are going to be mentioned. Similarly, three types of tapas - satva, rajo and tamo tapas would also be mentioned. Again satva dhanam, rajo dhanam and tamo dhanam are to be described. He is also going to explain which tapas are done orally, tapas done by mind and tapas done by body. Thus we are to see all these in 12 slokas. In our sampradhayam Triplets are special. After all, ours is Tatva traya sampradhayam - Chi, Achit and Iswara! Now sloka 11:

aphalāṅkṣibhir yajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate
yaṣṭavyam eveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ 17.11

Ya = this type, yajno = Yagna, sa satvika = is satvika yagna. Yaja deva poojam is Yagna or Yaga. Worshiping Deva is Yagna or Deva pooja. Alwars have talked about Deva pooja at many places. In one place Alwar says that Devas come down and worship the Lord at Badarikashram, with flowers. This pooja could be of many types, like chanting Divine names, or offering flowers, or like offering sacred materials in sacred fire by chanting mantras, and after observing fasts. Each would do that type of yagna, he is capable of doing. Satvika yagna is the best. What type of yagnas are performed by satvika persons? Anksha = desire in, aphala = no reward. That is detachment or no desire in results or rewards. Ankshibi = such desireless persons, yajno = yagna, vidhi = [according to shastras] rules, drsto = as seen. Shastras specify mantras, time, place, materials and kiriyai or actions, for a yagna. Thus yagna has to be performed as seen by shastras. We can not do as we like. Yastavyam eveti = such yagnas are performed for the pleasure of the Lord or for the sole purpose of performing pooja to the Lord. Mana samadhaya = with determined mind. That is not drifting the mind to inferior rewards like more wealth or for parenthood, but for the sake of the Lord. Without this, the yagna could not be satvika yagna. Unless it is satvika yagna, it can not bestow supreme rewards. Our objective should be for the superior benefits. Our only reward should be to perform pooja to the Lord. What we do should be for His pleasure. That is satvika yagna. En route to Badrikashram, we see so many siddha persons performing meditation. They do it for the welfare of the World. We now proceed to Joshimutt, that is Tiruppiridi!

Saturday, June 27, 2009

BG 17.12

At the spot where today's [26th June 2009] lecture was recorded, we see a statue of Ganga Mata! She is seated with right hand in abhaya, left arm pointing to her divine feet, with water pot in one upper hand.


After worshiping Ganga, we see the swiftly flowing river and surrounded by many gopurams.

See full size image

Every tower has a history behind it. We are at Brahma kundam. Bhagiratha performed penance to bring Ganga on this Earth. We can see thousands of people waiting to take holy bath in this Brahma kundam. With well built steps to enable safe bathing and performing poojas, we can see many pilgrims here. This place is also known as Hariki pauri. Ganga was formed when the Lord took Sri Trivikrama Avatar. When the Lord lifted His left leg, high up, it crossed all the Seven worlds and reached Brahma's Satya loka. Dharma Devata transformed herself into water and flowed out of Brahma's kamandalu, to wash the Divine feet of the Lord. That is why it is Sri Pada Theertham.The water flowed in all Four directions. We see a place called Daksheshwar. Lord Brahma created many Prajapatis, of them Daksha Prajapati is one. Prajapatis are in charge of craetion of various living beings in this World. Shashi Devi was Daksha's daughter, who was married by lord Shiva. Daksha performed one yagna, but did not invite lord Shiva. Though Shashi Devi wanted to attend that yagna. But earlier Daksha and lord Shiva had some misunderstandings. Once in an yagna attended by Shiva and Brahma, Daksha Prajapati also entered to attend the yagna. That time he did not give due respects to Shiva. Further he talked ill of Shiva. Thus the relationship between the father-in-law and son-in-law was strained. In this background, Shashi Devi requested lord Shiva to permit her to attend the yagna performed by her father! Lord Shiva dissuaded her from attending, where her husband was not respected. Shashi Devi argued that with close relatives, like father, one should not mind such formalities. But lord Shiva maintained that Daksha, well aware of formalities and rules, had disrespected lord Shiva and so it would not be proper for her to attend. Shashi Devi was adament and attended the yagna. According to shastras, every god had to be offered havis, in yagnas. Lord Shiva was to have been offered havis. But Daksha performed the yagna without offering havis to lord Shiva. When Shashi Devi inquired why havis was not offered to her husband, not only proper reply was given, Daksha humiliated her. She instantly immolated herself and died. Learning this news, lord Shiva grew angry and came to the yagna spot and destroyed all. He was assisted by Veera Bhadra. When Daksha was also killed, all were worried about creation and so requested lord Shiva to shred off his anger. The Lord Sriman Narayana also appeared on Garuda and after pacifying lord Shiva, resurrected Daksha. This is the place where Daksha's yagna was conducted and so it is called Daksheshwar. Nearby is the hermitage of Sapta [Seven] Rishis, and is called Sapta srotha. When Ganga flowed down, she branched herself into seven rivers. First as she came down from sky, she branched into Three - one flowing in Deva lok, another in our world and third in Patal lok. But before reaching our Earth, she branched into Seven, in response to the prayers of Sapta Rishis. While satva quality would grow by drinking Ganga water, in sloka 10, is explained what factors nurture Tamo quality. Food determines our quality. A person's character is based on his shraddha, we saw earlier. His type of shraddha identified him. Food contributes to one's mind. In our mind, organs and body, the Three qualities are inherently associated. If we have satvika mind, then our shraddha would be satvika and we would do satva meditation and pray satva God. On the contrary, if rajo or tamo quality dominates our mind and body, then our shraddha would also be according to that. We drink milk shake of various flavours. These are added to milk. Milk becomes sweeter only on the addition of sugar. When we drink strawberry shake, we think we are drinking strawberry juice! Thus the additives dominate the main! Our mind in its natural form is pure; but when rajo or other qualities are added, the mind's action and the shraddha are according to the added quality. Our atman is pure, but is contaminated by others. For our shraddha to be good, our food should be good. Indirectly, therefore, our food habits determine our character. That is why Sri Krishna very carefully said which types of foods were encouraging satva quality in sloka 8; rajo quality in sloka 9. Now, in sloka 10, He tells about food liked by tamasa persons or food which will encourage tamasa qualities:

yātayāmaṃ gatarasaṃ pūti paryuṣitaṃ ca yat
ucchiṣṭam api cāmedhyaṃ bhojanaṃ tāmasapriyam 17.10

These foods are liked by tamo quality persons. We may get a doubt. Do these foods create tamo quality or tamo quality persons like these foods? It is like whether egg first or chicken first! If we start taking a particular type of food, then we get habituated to that type! Southerners can not remain without rice for long; while Northerners can not be away from wheat food for long! Which are those foods? Yatayamam = food cooked much earlier or cooked food eaten after a long time. These should not be taken has to be added after every type mentioned. After hearing the list, one might wonder whether we are asked to starve by the Lord! More than 90% of our food eaten, might come under the banned list mentioned here! Gatarasam = [food that has] lost its natural taste. We have to avoid any food with artificial additives! Fresh juice is better than with preservatives and essence! Puti = bad odour. As we eat we should not close our nose! Paryushitam = [food's] state has changed [like stale food]. Ucchistam = remnants [of food, of another person]. Here Swami Ramanuja mentions certain exceptions. Remnants of food eaten by one's Acharya, father, husband, elder brother or great Bhagavatas or devotees. Amedyam = [food that was] not offered in yagnas. That is food not offered to the Lord. Bhojanam = foods, tamasapriyam = are liked by tamo quality persons; and therefore, we have to avoid.

Friday, June 26, 2009

BG 17.11

Today's [25th June lecture is also from Hardwar. How Ganges came on earth? We have to see some episodes in Puranas. In Raghu dynasty, in which Sri Rama also was born, there was a king Sagara [सागर ஸாகரன்]. Once he performed Ashwamedha yagna. The holy horse was allowed to wander as was the custom. None should capture the horse and horse should return back to the yagna and would mark the completion of the yagna. But this horse was stolen and the King could not find where the horse was kept. He dispatched his 60,000 sons in search of the horse. They went to Patala lok and found the horse tied. Near it was the sage Kapila meditating. Without any enquiry, they decided that sage Kapila had stolen and tried to harm him. The sage was infuriated and cursed the sons of King Sagar to be reduced to ashes. The King was worried that his sons had not returned. He sent his another son Asamanjan, who was also not successful. Then he sent his grand son Amsuman to search for the horse and his other sons. Amsuman found the horse and sage Kapila. After gathering the news that all 60,000 sons of Sagar were reduced to ashes, he respectfully approached sage Kapila and requested for the horse and also to make the 60,000 sons to be alive! Sage Kapila gave back the horse, but said that by bringing Ganga from upper worlds, the 60,000 sons could be salvaged. Amsuman returned and did penance for bringing Ganga. But he could not succeed. In the Seventh generation of King Sagar was born Bhagiratha and he started the penance sincerely.
We have to see another story. Emperor Bali was performing one yagna on the banks of river Narmada. Completion of that yagna would make Bali powerful and so Indra requested the Lord to save him. The Lord was born as the dwarf Sri Vamana and went to the yagna and begged for Three steps of earth from Bali. When Bali promised to grant, the Lord took the gigantic form of Sri Trivikrama. In one stride His first step covered entire Universe. He lifted His left leg high up to stride and cover all the upper worlds. Seeing the Foot of the Lord in Satya lok, lord Brahma, as was the custom, tried to welcome the Lord by washing His foot! From his Kamandalu, lord Brahma washed the foot of the Lord and that water became Ganga, most sacred water!
When Bhagiratha requested lord Brahma to allow Ganga to flow down to earth, he asked Bhagiratha to ensure Ganga was received properly. Bhagiratha prayed lord Shiva and he agreed to receive Ganga. Ganga came down with force and in order to suppress Ganga's pride, lord Shiva received her on his head and later kept her captured within his hairdo! Again at the request of Bhagiratha, Shiva released a small portion of Ganga to flow out! At the request of Bhagiratha, Ganga agreed to follow him so that he could guide Ganga to the ashes of his ancestors. While flowing, Ganga submerged many villages and washed away many huts. Sage Janu's ashram also was washed away and the sage, to teach a lesson to Ganga, swallowed her fully in one gulp! Bhagiratha again requested the sage and so the sage released her. That is why Ganga is also called Janavi!
Now we will see sloka 9, where the Lord describe the food habits of persons with rajo quality:

āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ

These people with rajo quality like these types of food. Or, by taking these types of food rajo qualities become dominant in us. Too much of bitterness or too spicy or too sour are the food liked. Food which are too cold or too hot are liked by them.

Thursday, June 25, 2009

BG 17.10

We have begun visit of the most pleasant Kshetrams among North Indian Divya desams! Himalayas is a majestic symbol of our country. Ganga or Ganges river flows swiftly, as the melted ice on Himalayas. At present we are in Hardwar [हरिद्वार ஹரித்வார்], on the banks of Ganga. Periyalwar has composed in one pasuram [4.7.9], all the Kshetrams we are to visit! He lists Mathura, Salagramam, Dwaraka, Ayodhya, Badrinath, Devaprayag, etc. We have already visited Mathura. Hardwar, about 150 Miles from New Delhi, is the gate to enter Himalayas! Hrishikesh is about 20 Miles from here. Mountain route starts from Hrishikesh. Hima is snow and achalam is mountain. Thus Himalayas are considered as snow bound great mountains. Ganga originates from Gangotri at the top of the mountain. Alwar says that the mere uttering of the name Ganga, would absolve us of all sins. Ganga is the Sri Pada Theertham of the Lord; and so mere sight of Ganga would clear our sins accumulated over 21 births! Glory of Ganga can not be completed even in lectures for Two years. There is a sahasranamam [Thousand names] for Ganga, in Skanda purana in Kasi canto! Bhagirati, Jhanhavi, Tripadaka, etc., are some of the names. Gam bhuvam gata iti ganga - since she reached this Earth from sky, she is Ganga! Today's [24th June 2009] lecture is from Hari-ki-pauri.

In this spot, daily in the evening Harati for Ganga is celebrated.

Har Ki Paudhi (Hardwar)

Thousands of people daily assemble and float leaf floats with lamps in it and worship Mother Ganga, shouting Ganga Mata ki jai! In Srimad Ramayana, Sri Rama, Sri Sita and Lakshmana, crossed many rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, etc., and went into forests. Everytime they crossed a river, Sri Sita would worship that river and after praising the glory of the river would pray to protect the country! Because of it, even now Ganga is taking care of our country! From Gangotri, Ganga flows to Hardwar, then to Kashi and then finally terminate at Hoogly near Kolkatta. She travels about 1560 Miles! She is thus an economic source for India. She reaches plains from a height of 13,000 Feet! Hardwar itself is 1,000 Feet above sea level. This place is the first step to reach Hari! It is the entrance to Hari! Among the Moksham granting cities, Maya denotes Hardwar! Now, we shall see sloka 8 of Chapter 17. This sloka is connected with Hardwar. Earlier, Arjuna asked a question in the beginning of the Chapter, as to what benefits would accrue to a person not following shastras, but doing karmas sincerely. Sri Krishna replied that no benefits would be reaped by him, as following shastras is the only way to get any benefit. Explaining further, the Lord said karmas done in accordance with shastras, would make available benefits according to the qualities of the persons performing. If the person performed karmas according to shastras, with satva quality, he would reap some benefits different from those performing with rajo or tamo qualities. Now the Lord explains what types of food liked by persons with satva quality; liked by persons with rajo quality; and, liked by persons with tamo qulaity. What type of reaction will be there if we take satvika food or rajasa food or tamasa food. What good or bad results would be there taking such foods? Here, Sri Krishna tells which types of food are liked by satva quality persons; which types of food would nurture satva quality in us; what benefits accrue to us by taking such foods? Satva quality flourishes because of Ganga Mata! According to puranas, on a shukla tridiyai in Vaisaka month Ganga reached Earth. So it is celebrated as Baisaki festival, when harvesting is done. It is the same day as Akshaya tridiyai in South! By seeing or bathing or drinking Ganga water, satva quality will grow in us! There are many sages and siddhas meditating on the banks of Ganga! That is because of satva quality! Like snow, satva is represented by white color; while red and black represent rajo and tamo qualities! Now, sloka 8:

rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ 17.8

These foods are liked by persons with satva quality. Which are they? We should try to follow this. If our food is good, satva quality would grow and enable us to devote more on the Lord. Ayu = for longevity, satva = doing good for us, bala = strength by generating more prana vayu or oxygen and maintaining body temperature steadily, arogya = health, sukha = happiness, rasya snigdha sthira = food eaten is well digested and providing nutrients to the body, hrdya = pleasant looking, ahara = foods, satvikapriya = are liked by satva quality persons. Food with good appearance and smell, providing energy and strength to the body, would increase longevity and health, and are liked by persons with satva quality.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

BG 17.9

When we see dark clouds, we might think whether they were the clouds sent as messenger by Sri Andal, Who wanted to marry Lord Sri Venkatesa! The Divine Couple were gracing happily at Sri Vaikuntam. In Bhulok, our World, some sages decided to perform yagna. At that time sage Narada came to them and inquired who was going to be invoked in the yagna and who was to be offered havis or the sacred food? After discussion among themselves, they said they would offer to that God, Who was satva. How to identify the God with satvam? Fortunately for them, sage Brighu came to them. They requested him to find the Satvik God. Sage Brighu first went to Kailash, where lord Shiva was there. Lord Shiva was indifferent to Brighu and was in happy moments with Parvati! Sage Brighu was angered and he cursed that henceforth, none would take prasadams in lord Shiva temples. Next, he went to Satya loka, where lord Brahma was. There also lord Brahma was with Saraswati and did not look at sage Brighu! Again angered, sage Brighu cursed that lord Brahma would not have any temples! Finally, he went to Vishnu loka, where Lord Vishnu was with Sri Maha Lakshmi. Thinking that They were also neglecting him, sage Brighu kicked Sri Vishnu on His chest, the abode of Sri Maha Lakshmi. Jumping immediately, the Lord held the sage's foot and massaged saying that the sage might have been hurt while kicking Him! Seeing that the Lord was not angry and never bothered about the insult, the sage decided that such action reflected satva quality and so Sri Vishnu was the Satvik God! The Lord told that He was pretending not to look at the sage, so that the sage's foot would be pressed on Him! Though Brighu's anger was quenched, Sri Maha Lakshmi was very angry, as Her abode was insulted by the sage! She immediately left the place and came to Karaveerapuram, in Kolhapur in Maharashtra, to meditate! The Lord also came to Tirumala, and after taking permission of Sri Varaha, started meditation here. Seeing the Lord was meditating without food and water, lords Brahma and Shiva went to Sri Maha Lakshmi and requested Her, to abandon Her anger. Agreeing, She took the form of a cow seller; lord Brahma and lord Shiva became cow and calf. She took the cow and calf, to this region, whose capital was Narayanapuram. She sold the cow and calf to the King. The Lord was meditating so long that He was covered by mud. The cow and calf daily used to come to that place and the cow would shower milk right on the spot, where the Lord was meditating! The cowherd who was managing the cow, found that he could not get any milk from the cow; and on further investigation, found the cow was draining all milk in a spot. Angered by the act of the cow, the cowherd threw a stick on the cow; but the Lord wanted to protect the cow and so He emerged from the ground and so, the stick hit the Lord, Who started bleeding! Seeing this the cowherd ran away; but the cow went to the palace and complained to the King. He followed the cow to the forest and found the Lord bleeding. The King decided to take on the Lord, Who was angered at the audacity of the King and cursed him to become a ghost. Realizing his mistake, he sought pardon. The Lord said that he would have to spend some time as ghost, but later he would be born as King Akashraj and would be blessed with a daughter, Who would be Sri Maha Lakshmi, with the name Sri Padmavati. Accordingly, after some years he was born as King Akashraj and had a daughter Sri Padmavati. During Sri Rama's time, one Vegavati wanted to marry Him, but since it was not possible in that Avatar, She was born as Sri Padmavati. Vagulamalika was the mother of the Lord. She was connected with Sri Krishna Avatar! The Lord told His mother Vagulamalika, that He desired to marry Sri Padmavati, daughter of the King! Once when the Lord as Sri Srinivasa was hunting, He accidentally met Her and both fell in love with each other. Vagulamalika was sent as messenger to the King and she met the queen Dharini Devi. The Lord was restless and to avoid any undesirable results, took the form of a gypsy girl [kuratthi குறத்தி] and claimed 'She' could forecast future! 'She' holding princess Sri Padmavati's hand, predicted that She would soon get married to a handsome person! 'She' also predicted that someone [Vagulamalika] would be coming to propose marriage of her Son to the Princess; and King and Queen should readily agree. Saying these, the Lord came away and Vagulamalika met the queen. Her proposal was accepted and marriage preparations were made. Lord Yama took charge of law and order! Vayu looked after the guests! Agni, god of fire, took care of the kitchen! Indra was in charge of the overall management. Kubera gave 11,400, 000 Ramanishkama as loan for the marriage. Marriage was celebrated in a grand manner. The Couple exchanged garlands. From that time the Lord is gracing devotees as Sri Srinivasa. Now, we will see sloka 7 of Chapter 17:

āhāras tv api sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ
yajñas tapas tathā dānaṃ teṣāṃ bhedam imaṃ śṛṇu 17.7

The Lord tells Arjuna that He was going to tell how dhanam, tapas and yagna are classified into Three types based on the Three qualities - satvam, rajas and tamas. For all these the foundation is food habits. According to our food habits, our quality would flourish. Satvika food would create satva quality; rajasa and tamasa foods would develop rajo and tamo qualities in us. In Chandokya Upanishad, a sage advises his son that the mind developed according to the food taken. Shastras say ' ahara siddhau tattva siddhi: tatva siddhau dhruva smrithi:'. If food is pure, satva quality would develop, which would permit dhyanam or meditation. In meditation if we remember the Lord, then all our doubts would be cleared. Aharas tvapi = even food, sarvasya = for everyone, bhavati = are, priya = liked, trividho = in Three types. Earlier the Lord had told that shraddha is of Three types. He is going to tell later, that dhanam, tapas and yagna are of Three types. And so, He says that even food is also liked in Three types. Tatha = similarly, yajna = yagna or sacred Karmas, dhanam = donation or charity, tapas = penance or meditation, tesam bhedam = [three types of] difference among them, imam srunu = now listen [from Me, Sri Krishna]. We are to learn that food is of Three types and respective qualities are developed and also learn which type of food should be taken. If satvika food is taken Lord Sri Venkatesa would ever remain in us. Swami Prativadhi Bhayankaram Anna composed Sri Venkatesa suprabhatam, which also consists of Venkatesa Prapatti and Venkatesa Mangalam. This is being chanted daily and is popular. He was one of the Ashta Dik Gajams of Swami Manavala Mamunigal. He says that the Lord, Who is in all minds, is always in the thoughts of Swami Manavala Mamunigal, the last of Poorva Acharyas of Sri Vaishnavas. This clearly demonstrates that the Lord remains for ever in minds of satva people.

sriyakkanthaye kalyana nidhaye nidhayerchinam |
srivenkata nivasaya srinivasaya mangalam ||

With this mangala sloka, we now take leave of Tirumala and proceed to visit Northern Kshetrams.

BG 17.8

Sri Venkatesa has been praised by many Alwars. Many Acharyas have worshiped the Lord. In Him, Sri Venkatesa, Nammalwar performed saranagati. We will see some more Utsavams of the Lord in today's [22nd June 2009] lecture. Firstly, Teppotsavam.

Tirumala Theppothsavam

While all other festivals are held on land, this is the only festival celebrated on water! In all temples, the Lord arrives at Pushkarini, twice in a year. Once, during Teppotsavam or the Float festival; and the other is during Teerthavari. Here, we have already seen Teertavari. At present we are looking at Teppotsavam. In the temple pond, a big float is assembled. It is decorated very well. We have seen earlier, the philosophy behind Teppotsavam - water, float and the Lord in it! Pond is with water and is seen supporting the float, in which is the Lord. Likewise, our atman is in a body; the Lord resides in the atman. Swami Ramanuja in the introductory sloka, of his Sri Bhashyam, says that those desiring Bhakti, pray to the Lord Sri Srinivasa, residing in all! This float reminds us of our body, our soul and the Lord residing in the soul. Young and old, alike, are eager to worship the Lord in this Float! Many devotees get into the Float, and go round in the pond and enjoy the company of the Lord.

The Lord is in a decorated Swing [oonjal ஊஞ்சல்]! There lived one Talapakkam Swami Annmacharya. He had immense love for Sri Srinivasa. This love developed Bhakti in Him. His idols could be seen in Tirupati and in Tirumala. To spread the songs of Bhakti, composed by Swamy Annamacharya, TTD are doing numerous commendable activities. They tour many places to spread songs of Swami Annamacharya. Seeing the Lord in Dolai, Swami Annamacharya derived greatest pleasure! The Oonjal is swung gently, when great artistes [Vidwans] would sing in praise of the Lord! Like an Emperor enjoying music in his garden, the Emperor of the Universe, Lord Sri Venkatesa relaxes in the Dolai. His devotees slowly push and pull the swing. When the swing approaches us, we feel the Lord is coming to bless us! And, when the swing moves away, we get the fear that we are abandoned by the Lord! But the more He swings away from us, with more speed He arrives to bless us! So, our fears are unfounded!
Now we will see sloka 6, which is a continuation of sloka 5 of Chapter 17. Even by doing a karma with sincerity, but not in accordance with shastras, no benefits will accrue; such Karmas are of Asura quality. They are having Kamaragha and are done for publicity and self prestige. Now, sloka 6:

karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṃ bhūtagrāmam acetasaḥ
māṃ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṃ tān viddhy āsuraniścayān

Sri Krishna tells Arjuna to be sure that those persons are of Asura type. Who are they? Acetasa = fools or persons with no intellect. They do not know which are the actions to be done to get happiness in this world while alive or in the other worlds after death. Karsayanta = torture [themselves], sarirastham = this body and its, bhutagramam = assembly of organs. These persons [doing actions not conforming to shastras], think that they are doing penance or meditation, by subjecting their body and organs to various tortures. They sit on hill tops, sit amidst fires, drink only water, etc. Alwar questions where is the necessity to torture oneself to realize God? If one wanted to attract a King, one might do antics; but to attract one's own mother, are they necessary? In fact seeing this, the mother might get worried as to why her child was torturing its body? Similarly, the Lord is not at all pleased with such tortures, especially, when they are inflicted to perform karmas not prescribed by shastras. These persons hurt various organs of the body! Antahsarirastham = [residing] inside the body, mam caiva = I [Sri Krishna] am also [tortured]. If we are holding a baby in our arms, and if we do anything with the arms, the baby also is subject to those actions and might suffer. Similarly, when we torture our body, we subject the Lord also to such tortures. But this is not the implication, when the Lord tells. We know that even when the Lord is present in ugly surroundings, that ugliness will never affect the Lord. It is not like a pearl or flower in mire or dust. But the Lord certainly suffers at the torture of body by these persons. How? If we beat a child, its mother feels hurt. When a body is hit, atman suffers. Since atman is child of the Lord, He suffers at the suffering of His child! This is what the Lord implies. By torturing the body atman suffers; consequently, the Lord for Whom atman is the body, suffers! Tan viddhy = [therefore] understand these persons, asura niscayan = standing firmly on Asura qualities, like not caring for shastras. Not understanding that simple Bhakti would fetch happiness while alive and after death, these foolish persons torture their bodies in actions not stipulated in shastras, and think that they can get happiness while being alive in this world and after death in the other worlds! The Lord blesses enduring happiness, if we follow shastras and perform simple acts in accordance with shastras.

Monday, June 22, 2009

BG 17.7

Swami Vedanta Desika in his Dayasatakam, says,
'Vigahe theertha bahulam seethalam guru santhathim|
Srinivasa dayamodhi parivaha paramparam ||'
We should take bath in the refreshing cool water of daya [mercy] of the Lord! To do this we require bathing ghat. Where is it? It is the pasurams of Alwars and stotrams and guidelines given by Acharyas! Otherwise, by directly trying to 'bathe' in His mercy, might put us in problems. Lord Sri Srinivasa's daya melts down and flows as guru parampara [lineage of Acharyas], including Alwars. We have been seeing festivals organized by various Acharyas, in Tirumala. We will see some more festivals, apart from Brahmotsavam. Almost all through out the year, the Lord graces festivals! Utsavam [festival] implies Sri Utsavar has to participate! In today's [19th June 2009] lecture we will see Pavitrotsavam [பவித்ரோத்சவம்]. Pavitrata means sacred and so, pavitrotsavam means very sacred festival. When the Lord Himself is sacred, where is the necessity for sacred festival?, we might wonder. It should not be seen in that meaning. During the entire year, we might have committed known and unknown errors due to ignorance or incapability or due to shortage in the quality and/or quality of materials, or due to inadequate time. As an example, flowers offered should not have been plucked using our nails; their fragrance should not have been smelt by us; and so many such stipulations. While assembling flowers as garlands, we could have committed so many mistakes. While He might pardon our ignorance and incapability, our mistakes committed knowingly, have to be pardoned after proper prayer to the Lord. In the festivals any such deficiencies like mantra lobha [deficiency in mantras] or kriya lobha [ deficiency in duties], are being sought to be pardoned in this pavitrotsavam.

Next, appropriate to His exemplary valour, He graces pari vettai [பரி வேட்டை]. Usually, in all temples this is celebrated on Vijaya Dasami day as Kanu Parivettai [கனு பாரி வேட்டை]. The Lord carries bow and arrows. It signifies that the Lord destroys our enemies, just as He shot arrows at Ravana and Kumbhakarna and killed them! Next, is Vasanthotsavam and associated Tirumanjanam. Vasantam is spring season. Though it is also like summer, during this season all flowers bloom, and this season was prescribed for Sri Rama Pattabhishekam. The Lord graces from Vasanta Mandapam, surrounded by cool flowing water and breeze from surrounding trees and plants! Lord's real beauty is exhibited during Tirumanjanam! The Lord graces with Sri Ubhaya Nacchiyars! He graces holy bath in water mixed with fragrant materials. It is a memorable sight to see the Lord and His consorts with dripping wet yellow clothes and with green Tulasi garlands! We will now see sloka 5 of Chapter 17:

aśāstravihitaṃ ghoraṃ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ
dambhāhaṃkārasaṃyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ 17.5

Slokas 5 and 6 are in continuation, convey the same meaning. In sloka 1, Arjuna asked the Lord as to what reward was there for actions done with sincerity, but not conforming to shastras. Instead of directly replying that question, Sri Krishna talked about others in sloka 2, 3 and 4, and then in slokas 5 and 6 He answers that question. Arjuna wanted to know whether some benefits would accrue to the person who was sincere but not doing actions as per shastras. If an action has not been specified in shastras, no rewards would accrue. In fact, negative effects might accrue! That person might land in Naraka, as Asuras did actions not conforming to shastras! Violation of shastras, is the nature of Asuras and so, no rewards would be reaped. But this answer was not told, and in the intervening slokas 2, 3 and 4, the Lord told that actions done in conformity with shastras are of Three types according to the Three qualities. After giving a round about reply, here He says that anything done violating shastras would not fetch any reward. He says that ashastras means actions done with Asura quality. Ye jana = those people, ghoram = very violent, tapyante = perform tapas or meditation. The Lord was about to say that such violent actions would not give rewards; but Arjuna felt that such wild actions were also prescribed in shastras. Knowing Arjuna's doubt the Lord clarified by saying asastravihitam = not prescribed by shastras. So, He talks of those people, who perform meditation or poojas, not in conformity with shastras and perform them violently [torturing themselves]. They do with dambha = publicity or for fame, ahamkara = with ego or self pride, kama = with passion or lust, or for sensual desires, ragha = desire in such sensual pleasures, balanvita = with their strength or muscle power. Hanuman and Hiranyakasipu had muscle power. While Hanuman never had kamaraga or desire for sensual pleasures, Hiranyakasipu had plenty of it. We should recollect sloka 7.11 [BG 7.13], wherein the Lord told that He was the Power in strong men. Does it mean that the Lord is the strength in Hiranyakasipu? The Lord is not praising that, but says that the strength of such persons, without kamaragha, is the best. Hanuman's strength was useful to the world. Nuclear energy could be useful or can destroy. How this power is deployed is important. Muscle power used for sense pleasures would be dangerous. Those persons doing actions not prescribed in shastras, and doing it with muscle power, for publicity and with self pride, will not be rewarded and would be destined to hell. Thus Sri Krishna tells that even if done with sincerity, actions not prescribed in shastras, would not fetch those persons any reward.

Wednesday, June 17, 2009

BG 17.6

Swami Ramanuja respected both Pancharatra [पांचरात्र] and Vaikasana [वैकानासा] Agamas, equally and followed. In Tirumala temple, Vaikanasa agama is followed in respect of poojas and other religious activities. We will have a glimpse of the eagerly awaited Brahmotsavam celebrations:
The Lord's avatar day here is on Tiruvonam [Shravanam] in Purattasi month. The festival is for Nine days. On the first day is Dwaja Arohanam or flag hoisting. In the evening the Lord is in procession on Periya [big[ Sesha vahanam.


On Second day morning He is on Chinna [small] Sesha vahanam and in the evening He is on Hamsa [Swan] vahanam.

Chinna Seshavahana

The Lord gave back Vedas, by taking the form of a Swan. On Third day morning He is on Simha [Lion] vahanam and in the eveninSimha Vahanamg He travels by Muthu [Pearl] pallakku [palanquin].

On Fourth Day morning He is under Kalpaka Vruksham, which would grant anything we want. Alwar says the Lord is the real Kalpaka Vruksham, because He grants even Himself to Alwar! In the evening He is as Sarva Bhoopala! The Lord graces as the unquestioned Monarch!

Kalpavriksha Vahana

On the Fifth Day, the Lord graces in Nacchiyar Tirukkolam [நாச்சியார் திருக்கோலம்], or in Mohini alankaram, when we can see Him as a captivating Damsel! When He finds that we do not surrender to Him after making available Vedas and Shastras; and, making available Alwars and Acharyas to guide us; then, as a last resort He wants to captivate us by His beauty! In the evening is the very important festival of Garuda vahanam.

Mohini Avatarotsavam

Garuda is considered as embodiment of Vedas. Crowds of devotees come to worship. On Sixth day morning it is Hanumantha vahanam, when Hanuman sees the Lord as Sri Rama and carries Him in procession. In the evening Vasantotsavam is celebrated and the Lord is in procession inside Golden Chariot. In Tirumala, they call it Bangaru Ratham! In the night the Lord rides on Elephant, Gaja vahanam.
Hanumad Vahana

On Seventh day, in the morning the Lord is in Surya prabha and in the evening He is in Chandra prabha. Sun and Moon are like His eyes.
Suryaprabha Vahana

On Eighth day is Ther [தேர்], most important. All the persons in a town should gather and pull the Chariot along the streets.


With lots of decorations, it is quite difficult to see the Lord inside the chariot. But that is also very interesting! In the evening on Eighth day, the Lord gallops on Horse - Aswa vahanam. The Lord also took Sri Hayagriva Avatar, when He had the face of a Horse! Horse reminds us speed and power. The Lord, like an Horse, transports us to Vaikuntam as we surrender unto Him! On the Ninth day - last day of the festival- the Lord graces from a palanquin. While devotees worship the Lord from both sides, the Lord Himself sees His beauty in the mirror kept in front of Him inside! After this is Chhornabhishekam and Theerthavari. In Choornabhishekam, the Lord is smeared with fragrant powders and He also graces Tirumanjanam. Theerthavari is also known as Chakra snanam and Avabhruda snanam. The Lord asks Sri Chakra, to get bathed in the pond and this ensures the well being of the World. In the evening the Lord is in procession in 'tirucchi [திருச்சி]'. It is the short form of Tirucchivikai [திருச் சிவிகை], and nothing to do with Trichy town! In fact even in Srirangam, this palanquin is called Tirucchi! Finally in the evening is Dwaja avarohanam or flag dehoisting. That day is Purattasi Tiruvonam. During Tiruvonam every month, the Lord is in durbhar, facing East. But only in Purattasi Tiruvonam, He faces North, at Swami Ramanuja's sannidhi! Normally, in all temples on the Tenth day of Brahmotsavam, Dwadasa Aradhana would be performed; but in Tirumala, Dwadasa Aradana is celebrated for Sri ugra Srinivasa on Sri Jayanthi [Gokulashtami] day! Now we will move to sloka 4 of Chapter 17:

yajante sāttvikā devān yakṣarakṣāṃsi rājasāḥ
pretān bhūtagaṇāñś cānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ 17.4

Classifying the people according to the Three qualities of satva, rajas and tamas, the Lord mentions which gods these people worship. In the beginning of this Chapter, Arjuna asked what benefits accrue to a person performing duties sincerely, though not as per Vedas. Instead of directly answering, that no rewards are granted for those doing anything not conforming to Shastras, the Lord, with slight irritation at Arjuna's query, says something different. He says that actions performed as per Shastras, are of Three types. In the last sloka we saw that according to one's shraddha, one would be characterized. Person with satva quality, would have satva shraddha; with rajo quality, one would have rajo shraddha; and, with tamas quality, he would have tamasa shraddha. The person is identified by his shraddha. After this type of classification into Three types, what result each person gets for Vedic rituals like dhanam [donation], yagna, tapas [meditation] and poojas, performed. Satvika persons would worship Devas; Rajo persons would worship Yaksha and Rakshasas; and tamo persons would worship Demons and dead persons [ghosts]. According to the deities worshiped, each person reaches the world of such deities and enjoy their company! These happen according to the type of shraddha each person is having. Satvika = persons with satva quality and satvika shraddha, yajante = worship, devan = devas. Devas also include Sri Maha Vishnu, Who is Deva of Devas. Rajasa = persons with rajo quality [and rajo shraddha], yaksaraksamsi = [worship] Yaksha and Rakshasas. Those worshiping Devas, reach Devalok and enjoy company of Devas. Those worshiping Devadi Raja or Deva of Devas, reach Vaikuntam and would never return to samsaram. Those worshiping Yakshas and Rakshasas, reach their worlds and enjoy Yaksha and Rakshasa company. This is inferior to pleasure in Devalok or in Vaikuntam. Tamasa jana = Tamo quality persons [with tamo shraddha], yajante = worship, pretan = dead persons [or ghosts], bhutaganas = demons. These tamo type persons reach the worlds of demons and ghosts and enjoy their company, though very inferior.