catur-vidha bhajante mam
janah sukritino ’rjuna
arto jijnasur artharthi
jnani ca bharatarsabha
"O best among the Bharatas, four kinds of pious men begin to render devotional service unto Me—the distressed wanting to regain loss, the desirer of new wealth, the atman inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute."
He tells Arjuna to carefully listen to what Sri Krishna is going to tell. Chatur vidha = four types, jana = of people, sukritho = of good deeds, bhajante = surrender unto or pray, mam = Me [Sri Krishna]. He calls these people as sukritho or blessed ones, in contrast to dushkrito or bad deed people mentioned in the last sloka, while explaining the four types of people who never supplicate to Him. Arjuna asks who they were? We have to clearly understand these four types, as based on these Sri Krishna is going to tell more and so these categories must be well founded in our minds. We have already seen that entities are three:
- Chit - matter with intellect, billions of atman.
- Achit - matter without any intellect, all inanimate objects like materials, our body, stone, etc.
- Isvara -Paramatman, God, possessing both Chit and Achit as His dependents and His property.
Some others desire to be happy with atman anubhauam or experience. These persons consider materials as low and regard atman as superior and everlasting. They know atman is an embodiment of Gyana and Ananda, and so desire to have atman sakshatkaram and feel that pleasure is everlasting. They are called kaivalya aarthi.
Some others desire to be with God only. They are called Bhagavallabha aarthi.
Thus there are four types of people in devotion to Him.
Sri Krishna tells that all these people approach Him.
- Artha = regaining lost wealth.
- Artharti = need of new wealth.
- Jijnasu = to have atman anubhavam.
- Jnani = to associate with the Lord.