Wednesday, November 4, 2009

BG 18.75

We are at the bronze statue of Gitopadesam on the banks of Brahma Sarovar. It is Arjuna's chariot, driven by Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna used Arjuna as a tool, and conducted the war. Since He had promised Duryodana that He would not use His weapons in the war, He did not fight in the war. Arjuna was holding Gandeepa bow. Did it not mean that Arjuna fought the war? Alwar does not accept it. Alwar says that the war was fought by Sri Krishna. Not by using weapons, but by driving the chariot here and there, He conducted the war! In memory of that, this bronze statue is installed here. It is 50 Ft. high, 26 Ft. long and 25 Ft. wide. We may wonder, when we see the statue, as to, who was more important, Arjuna or Sri Krishna? Seeing Sri Krishna in the front, it appears, He is important. But since the owner of the chariot was Arjuna, he seems to be important. Thus this gives importance to both. At this spot, today's [5th November 2009] lecture on the remaining slokas will be seen. For the past about Three years, we have been studying Gita in this program. It is the duty of the lecturer [Sri UVe. Velukkudi Krishnan Swami] to convey his gratitude to those who taught him Gita and its interpretations. In that regard, he is grateful to Srimad Veda marga pratishtapanacharya ubhaya vedantacharya Sri Velukkudi Varadacharya Swami, who was his father. His father grasped these details from Srimad veda marga pratishtapanacharya ubhaya vedantacharya Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami.

vELvikkudi Swamy.jpgKarapankadu swamy with sishyas.jpg

Karappankadu is near Mannargudi. Kar + Appan + Kadu [கார் + அப்பன் + காடு]= Dark blue + Lord + forest. This place is called Neelambuja vanam and Krishna Aranyam. Here, the Lord Sri Abheeshta Varadaraja, along with Sri Perundevi Thayar, is gracing beneath Punyakoti Vimanam. Before circa 1900, Sri UVe Karappankadu Singaperumal Swami lived here, like a lion! He had learnt all shastras thoroughly well. He was scholar in, both Sanskrit and Tamil. His maternal grand son was Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami. He was born in 1906, in Panguni month, in Punarvasu star, like Sri Rama. He learnt all shastras from his maternal grand father. Sri Singaperumal Swami adopted his grandson Sri Venkatacharya, as his son. Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami also learnt from another scholar Karappankadu Sri Desika Varadacharya Swami, who later, came to Srirangam as head of Sriranga Narayana Jeer Mutt. Sri Karappankadu Venkatacharya Swami came to Chennai in 1930, and in Triplicane and in Mylapore, he had given numerous lectures. Even now, some living octogenarians, fondly remember those lectures. In 1971, he departed this world to reach Vaikuntam. His lectures on Gita, were a treat to the ears. With minimum time and minimum efforts, one could easily understand very difficult subjects. He also prepared the next line of scholars, to propagate our sampradhayam. He taught four such Vidwans, among whom was this lecturer's father UVe. Velukkudi Sri Varadacharya Swami. We can see a vintage photo of Sri Karappankadu Swami with his Four disciples, above. We will see about Velukkudi and about Sri Velukkudi Sri Varadacharya Swami, tomorrow, when this lecture series would conclude. Now, we will see some more slokas in Chapter 18. First, sloka 67:

idaṃ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana
na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yobhyasūyati 18.67

As Arjuna requested, the Lord Sri Krishna explained all the important meanings hidden in Upanishads, in all these 18 Chapters. Sri Krishna thought that while He had explained all these great secrets, without any reservation to Arjuna, for mere request, He felt that those should not be revealed to others just like that, and only those who showed interest and had Bhakti in Him, should be told. So, He advises Arjuna, not to reveal these secrets to the persons mentioned in sloka 67. It is not that the Lord wanted to keep it hidden from all; but, only interested persons should know. We can see in the sloka that as Sri Krishna lists the persons, stricter guarding of the secret is stipulated. Idam = this [great Gita Shastram], na atapaskaya = never to [those] without tapas or meditation. Arjuna thought that all were not that great, to perform tapas. Then, almost none will be able to know. Could not the Lord, slightly relax the condition? Kadacana = always, na = never, abhakaya = [to those] not devoted [to Sri Krishna]. Those, who do not have bhakti in Him, should not be told. Bhakti also is not that easy to get. That too, with the definition of Bhakti in Chapter 9, it was almost impossible for all. Could not He relax the condition further? Na ca asusrave = never to [those] uninterested in listening. Here also, Arjuna felt that in this fast world many might not have time to listen. Perhaps, if Gita is told, some might develop interest. Again, Sri Krishna, relaxes the condition. Na ca mam yobhyasuyati = never to one, who is jealous of Me [Sri Krishna]. If anyone has no love for Sri Krishna, he should never be told of Gita. These persons, out of jealousy, think of His auspicious qualities as bad qualities. These are the persons, who should not be told about Gita. In the next sloka, the Lord says that those who propagate Gita and its interpretations, are very dear to Him. The Lord says such persons will remain always with Him. They are given the same status as great Gyani! Sloka 68:

ya idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ madbhakteṣv abhidhāsyati
bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā mām evaiṣyaty asaṃśayaḥ 18.68

Esyati = attains, mam eva = Me [Sri Krishna] only, asamsaya = have no doubt. Ya = he, who, idam = this, paramam = supreme, guhyam = secret [of Gita, Moksha Shastra], madbhaktesa = among My [Sri Krishna's] devotees, abhidhasyati = preaches, with interpretations, mayi = to Me [Sri Krishna], param bhaktim = supreme devotion, krtva = done. Person, who preaches Gita with its meanings to His devotees, is considered as greatly devoted to the Lord. He will reach the Lord and there can be no doubt in that. Arjuna gets another doubt. In Gita it is told that Tatva viveka is to be acquired and attachment to body should be destroyed. We should have the Three Tyagas, Karma yoga, Gyana yoga, etc. We should know the greatness of the Lord. We have to acquire many good qualities. Then only, one could reach Him. Now, the Lord says that the reward for all these, preached in Gita, that is Moksha Prapti or attainment of Moksham, is given to him, who preaches Gita with its meaning, to others! Is it possible, Arjuna doubts. For this the Lord replies in the next sloka, 69:

na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaścin me priyakṛttamaḥ
bhavitā na ca me tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi 18.69

The Lord says that he, who preached Gita with its meaning, is liked by the Lord in the same way He liked those, who had already preached like that. Not only that; all those, who are going to preach, in future also would be liked by Him. There was nothing more pleasing to Lord. When we preach or think or study always, with its meaning, the Lord is pleased very much. Since the Lord is pleased, He uses His power to grant him Moksham. We have to note that by thinking of Gita and its meanings, Bhakti would spring spontaneously and Bhakti would enable reaching the Lord. Tasman manusyesu = all those persons [who preach Gita with its meanings] are, me priyakrttama = very much liked by Me [Sri Krishna], na kascin = none else. Bhavita = in future, tasmad anya = other than those [who preached Gita with its meanings], bhuvi = in this world, na priyatara = no one is liked [by Sri Krishna]. In the past also, there was none equal to him, who preached Gita, with its meanings, loved by the Lord; in future also, the Lord is going to like such persons preaching Gita with its meanings, and none else. So, Arjuna's doubt, whether by preaching Gita, whether Moksham was possible, is answered by the Lord; it is possible, because, constant thinking on Gita will generate Bhakti, which will mature to Parama Bhakti and make the person to reach the Lord. If we meditate on God, and if He decided, in a split second, our desires would be fulfilled. To get Bhakti, therefore, His blessings are needed, in spite of our many efforts. So, if He could be pleased, then anything is possible. By these Two slokas [68 and 69], the Lord reveals His love for those who preach Gita. Now, sloka 70:

adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃvādam āvayoḥ
jñānayajñena tenāham iṣṭaḥ syām iti me matiḥ 18.70

Arjuna gets the next doubt! It is OK that those preaching, get Moksham. What about ordinary people like us? After all, preacher could be very few and listeners would be much more. Each one of us do not have the capability to preach Gita. Arjuna wants to know, whether listeners had any benefit. Our Acharyas might get Moksham; what about the disciples? Sri Krishna says it is pleasing to listen to such great lectures. Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar says in his Tirukkural, 'selvatthut selvam sevi chelvam [செல்வத்துட் செல்வம் செவிச் செல்வம்]' - of all the wealth, listening is the greater wealth! After all, for the sake of Arjuna as a listener, the Lord delivered such a great Shastra! Ya = he, who, samvadam = conversation, avayo = between Us [Sri Krishna and Arjuna], imam dharmyam = this teaching [Moksha Shastram, detailing how to reach Moksham, like Gyana yoga, Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, Purushottama Vidya, etc.], adhyesyate = studies or recites or chants [Gita] with its meanings. It is not mere listening to this lecture series, Gita parayanam is over. For the rest of our lives, we should be constantly studying and chanting them. Me mati = My [Sri Krishna's] opinion is, that person worshiped the Lord by Gyana. Normally, we perform pooja, with materials like flower, etc. By chanting Gita with its meanings, or listening to such chantings, the Lord is worshiped by Gyana. Tena jnanayajnena = by that worship by Gyana [of listening to Gita with its meanings], aham = I [Sri Krishna] am, istah syam = very much pleased. This is His opinion. Is it that, all those, who listened to Gita lectures from many Acharyas, in the future would be liked by the Lord? The Lord says 'Yes' and says it is His opinion! He did not care about others' opinion! Next we see sloka 71:

śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca śṛṇuyād api yo naraḥ
sopi muktaḥ śubhāṃl lokān prāpnuyāt puṇyakarmaṇām 18.71

It is OK listening to Gita with its meanings. What about just listening to? The Lord has climbed down from the top: First, He wanted the person to have Bhakti in Him; or, at least, chant Gita, with its meanings; or else, to listen to with meanings; or, now He says, at least listen to the slokas! Our group of Three Thousand people assembled in Kurukshetra, had chanted all slokas. All of us listened to those slokas. Not only those, who joined the group; even those listening to the lecture series, also are blessed. The Lord did not specify that Gita slokas were to be listened to or chanted at any particular place. Benefit is same, wherever it is chanted or listened to. Sraddhavan = whoever is sincere [to the Lord], anasuyas ca = and does not have jealousy [in the Lord], srnuyad api = even mere hearing, mukta = is relieved of [papas in the way of Bhakti], prapnuyat = reaches, subham lokan = auspicious group of, punyakarmanam = [persons having performed] punya karma or noble deeds. In that group, this person will listen to Gita with its meanings and that will induce him to learn Gita, with its meanings; that will lead him to Bhakti, then Para Bhakti, Para Gyana and Parama Bhakti, and finally he will reach Moksham. Thus the greatness of the Preacher and Listener of Gita, is told by the Lord.


rekhs said...

Thank u so much for ur valued service and its been a pleasure reading yr translation which is almost verbatim!I luk fwd to the same for the srimad bhagavatham series also
can i pls call you this week end? if so pls let me know when and yr contact #, to

TG Saranathan said...

Thanks for your encouraging words. It is His blessings and Acharyas' Kataksham, this translation effort was complete. Though, I would have liked to continue the translation of Srimad Bhagavatam, the Lord has different plans for me. I have to go abroad in early December and so I do not propose to start translating Bhagavatam.
I may be contacted on 0431- 2437000, after Monday, as I am busy with some religious function on Saturday and Sunday.
Thank you once again,
dasan saranathan.

soinka sachdeva said...

Ek aatma ke margdarshan ke liye dhanyawaad...