brahmane gavi hastini
suni caiva sva-pake ca
The humble sages, by virtue of true knowledge, see with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste].
Sama darshan [identical view] is the result of atman sakshatkaram. That is seeing all as equal,because atman is same in all. Differences arise because of the body, and sans body, atman is same in all. Gyani views all as equal. It is not simple as it appears. To reach this level one has to struggle hard. Brahmane = one who has perceived Brahman or Paramatman. Here we have to make two categories, vidya vinaya sampanne brahmane and kevala brahmane. Vidya = well learned and cultured, vinaya = humility as a result of such learning, sampanne = filled or containing, brahmane. Kevala = without all these learning and with no culture, but having the sacred thread on the chest to show one as brahmin. Between these two no difference should be seen. Gavi = cow, hasti = elephant, between these two also no difference should be observed. Suni = dog, sva-pake = one who eats cooked dog meat, between these two also one should not see difference. Panditha = learned persons, sama darsana = will have identical view [on all the three pairs mentioned]. Here, Sri Krishna calls the one who has got atman sakshatkaram as Panditha, who will see no difference between educated and uneducated, cow and elephant and an animal and a person who eats that animal. Physically all are different. But to observe all are same [ with respect to atman ] is the characteristic of atman sakshatkaram. Person who sees the pure, knowledge-full and bliss-full atman in all bodies, is panditha. These three pairs of examples show a pattern. First is education wise difference. Second is difference by size or by appearance. Third is a creature and another who uses it as an utility. So one who discards difference due to knowledge, appearance, utility, place and time, and sees the atman as same in all, is called a panditha who has reached atman sakshatkaram stage. This will be reached depending on our efforts and so it can occur in youth or old age. Sage Sukha, observed plants and animals as equal to him. When the village chief reports that the paddy cultivated in the village as equal it means the same variety has been harvested, though the quantities may vary with every farmer in the village. So differences by species, caste, culture, country or sex are body based and every atman is identical in each of the body. Body is to expend the accumulated papa/punya, and by presuming that to be atman, makes one to indulge in karmas that result in continuing in the birth-death cycle and undergo more and more rebirths. How can we ignore the differences that are perceptible? Yes, we can not deny the physical differences, but we have to see from a higher platform. Just as there are so many provinces in our country, which are different in language, culture and habits, but still we see all as one representing India, as single country. Similarly, here also atman should not think the differing physical and other differences as representing atman. If we do not do that, then we will contiue to do what we are and we can not escape birth cycle and the miseries of samsaram. But to come out of this cycle, we have to consider all are having the same atman and so all are equal. This attitude will derive peace and tranquility all over. So we have to strive for atman sakshatkaram. Yuha gyanam is understanding all are having identical atman and so all are equal. This is the attitude of panditha. With such persons there will not be disputes arising out of religion or caste or creed.