Tuesday, August 11, 2009

BG 18.14

Yatra yatra raghunatha keertanam tatra tatra krutamastakanjalim |
Bhashpavari paripoornalochanam marutim namatarakshakantakam ||
Wherever Sri Ramayana is read, there Hanuman is, with folded hands, bowed head and with tears in eyes, listening to Sri Rama's Divine name. Today's [12th August 2009] lecture is from Hanuman Gaddi, where it is believed Hanuman is present.

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When Sri Rama departed for Sri Vaikuntam, after His Avatar mission was over, He carried with Him all in Ayodhya. Sri Rama recognising Hanuman's great devotion, all the help he rendered in finding Sri Sita and in the war with Ravana, asked Hanuman to accompany Him to Vaikuntam. For this Hanuman replied that after seeing Sri Rama, his eyes would not like to see anyone else, be He even the Sri Vaikunta Natha! If Hanuman desired to see Sri Rama, he would visit Ayodhya. Pleased with his reply, Sri Rama agreed for Hanuman to stay in this world and be singing and praising Sri Rama's names. From that time Hanuman is present at Ayodhya or Srirangam or Tirumala or Badarikshram or anywhere else and listens to Sri Rama's story. Hanuman Gaddi is very important. People here believe and claim that Hanuman in this place is protecting entire Ayodhya. Steep steps and tall gopuram welcome us. This temple is constructed according to North Indian tradition. We can worship Hanuman inside. Full view of the idol may not be possible. Surrounding Hanuman is prakaram or corridor. There is an Yagnashala, where daily yagna is performed. Through out the day, Hanuman is offered 'Bhog' [eatables]. Apart from fresh preparations, Hanuman is also offered eatables we procure from outside. These are returned to us as prashad! Hanuman lived for a long time in Ayodhya - he is still living in Ayodhya. Greatness of Hanuman got exhibited to the outside world by Sri Sita, during Sri Rama Pattabhishekam - coronation ceremony. Tamil Poet Kamba says that during coronation, Hanuman supported the Simhasanam or throne [Ariyanai anuman thanga அரியணை அனுமன் தாங்க]. It is a great fortune to worship Hanuman here. Hanuman is gracing as Vinaya Anjaneya with folded hands. Invoking his blessings, we will now see Two important slokas 14 and 15 of Chapter 18, together. Both the slokas convey the Five factors responsible for anyone to start any action. Without the contribution of these Five factors, no action, whether vaideeka or laukika, can not be initiated. Let us recollect why Sri Krishna is telling all these. Karmas can and should not be abandoned; only the results of karmas should be sacrificed. This was told till sloka 12. To explain Phala tyaga or sacrice of results, kartrutva anusandhanam and akartrutva anusandhanam - remembering I-am-not-the-doer, but it is the Lord Sriman Narayana, using us to perform all these actions, was told. We are bound by Him; at the same time actions have to be done by us. Our actions are motivated by our past papa/punya. We are like horses and the reins are with the Lord. We move accoding to our papa/punya. Earlier, in one sloka Arjuna raised an objection. In Upanishads it is said 'nanyapantha: ayanaya vidyate tamevam vidwan amrutam ihabavati ' - to reach Moksham, other than Gyana marg, there is no other means. That is, understanding the Lord and doing upasana or Bhakti. But Sri Krishna is emphasizing on karma. Arjuna felt there was contradiction. Sri Krishna replied that while Gyana marga alone will reach one to Mukti, karma marga can not directly reach one to Mukti. But karma marga will lead to Gyana and Bhakti marga, which alone will take one to Moksham. One can not say that one performed Karma yoga and reached Vaikuntam. But by performing Karma yoga, one attained atman sakshatkaram; understanding atman in its true form, one realized atman was servant of the Lord; therefore, by worshiping Him in Bhakti yoga, one reached Moksham. This is the correct procedure. Gyana when matures and ripens, becomes Bhakti. So, Karma yoga leads to Bhakti; but to start or while doing, Bhakti, a number of impediments are to be cleared by karmas. Continuous performance of our specified karmas are necessary to continue Upasana. Upanishads also say that Brahmins are eager to realize the Lord and in their search, perform Yagna, Tapas and Danam. So, these karmas can never be abandoned. We will now see slokas 14 and 15 together, where the Five reasons are spelt out. We had earlier seen that for doing an acton Paramatman [God], Jeevatman [self], our body [essential for the atman to reside], organs of the body and the Five pranas [airs, indicating the body was active] are necessary. An association of all these Five only can initiate any action. Therefore, it is useless to say I-did-it, when in reality all Five factors, in combination, are responsible. Now, slokas:

adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā kartā karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham
vividhāś ca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam 18.14

śarīravāṅmanobhir yat karma prārabhate naraḥ
nyāyyaṃ vā viparītaṃ vā pañcaite tasya hetavaḥ 18.15

Tasya hetava panca = for that, factors are Five. That is, for all our actions or karmas, Five are responsible. Sarira = by body, vak = by speech, manobhi = and also by mind, yat karma = whichever action, nara = human, prarabhate = initiates, nyayyam va= justified [by Vedas], viparitam va = restrained [by Vedas]. Thus our actions by body or speech or mind, are of Two types - accepted and according to Vedas or against and prohibited by Vedas. To start these actions, Five factors are responsible. Now we see the First sloka. Adhisthanam = body [occupied by soul], tatha kartha = and the doer, that is atman or soul, prthag = different, vidham = types, karanam = implements [to perform various actions - like karmendriya mouth, hands, legs, excretion and reproductive organs, etc., and gyanendriya like eyes, nose, tongue, ears, skin, etc., and various others], prthakcesta = involved in various activities [Five vayus or airs - prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana, each having different tasks like for respiration, exhaust gas, keeping pressure balance in the body, for yawning, for assisting limbs to move, for digestion, etc.], caiva = and, atra = here [where all these Four factors are described], daivam = God [most important and all controlling Lord], pancamam = [these] Five [factors]. Body, atman, organs and airs are important; but all these Four factors are controlled by the Lord, and all these constitute Five factors. Atra word qualifies only daivam and so all the other Four [body, soul, organs and airs] are controlled and commanded by God. We will discuss more about these later. We will now take leave of Hanuman Gaddi.

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