We have been visiting one by one various places connected with Sri Rama, in Ayodhya. Today's [13th August 2009] lecture is from Nandigram, situated at about 15 Miles, South of Ayodhya. This place has many greatness. While returning from Lanka, Sri Rama along with Sri Sita had to halt at Bharadwaja Ashram. Bharata had already vowed that he would not bear life, if he could not see Sri Rama on the very next day of completion of Fourteen years. He had told that he would create fire and commit suicide by falling into it. Afraid that Bharata might commit something, even if a day was delayed, Sri Rama called His dear friend cum messenger cum assistant, and requested him to immediately go to Nandigram and ensure nothing untoward happened. Bharadwaja Ashram was near present Triveni Sangamam, in Allahabad. Though it was far off from Ayodhya, Hanuman without any worry, immediately jumped into the sky and flew to Ayodhya. We should note another incident also. Bharata never ruled the kingdom, from Ayodhya. He went to Chitrakoot and requested Sri Rama to return and rule the Kingdom; but Sri Rama declined and gave His Padukas [sandals] to Bharata. Bharata carried the sandals on his head and came near Ayodhya. Bharata never entered Ayodhya, but stayed at Nandigram, we are seeing now. Thinking that he was responsible for Sri Rama's exile, Bharata was afraid of and ashamed to enter Ayodhya. Fourteen years were over and Bharata could not find Sri Rama. He called Shatrugna and asked him to prepare the fire pit. He started going round the fire and in the next Ten minutes he would have fallen into the fire pit! Fortunately, life saving Hanuman landed from sky! Hanuman immediately understood the situation. Normally, we in such emergencies, will be in tension and will not think what action to be taken and do that. But Hanuman was skilled to face emergency. He knew that it was not the time to go and console Bharata, as he would not look at others nor hear any speech. Bharata was only interested in seeing Sri Rama and none else! Hanuman knew that only the Lord's name Sri Rama, could save. So, Hanuman started singing the glory of Sri Rama, as he was still hovering above. Bharata was bound by Sri Rama's name. When Bharata stood still listening to Sri Rama's name, Hanuman used this pause to jump on earth! Bharata looked at him, who sang so beautifully, Sri Rama's name. Just by their looks, both could understand and there was no need for formal introduction! One was the devoted brother of Sri Rama, while the other was the faithful servant of Sri Rama; one was worshiping Sri Rama as elder brother, while the other was His messenger. It was like the union of Bhakti and Bhakti, Gyana and Gyana, and Vairagya and Vairagya! Asakrutva Anusandhanam's personification were Bharata and Hanuman! Each embraced the other. Hanuman told Bharata that the Lord was hurrying to see Bharata and showed up in the sky, where Sri Rama was arriving on Pushpaka Vimanam. The day dawned with Sun rise and for Bharata, it was dawn of Dinakara kula Surya, Sri Rama. Bharata was pleased to see Sri Rama along with Sri Sita! We can see the picture of Hanuman and Bharata embracing each other. What is the common between them? Sri Rama was the only objective for both. Other than that, nothing else was in their mind. Hanuman served the Lord, in search of Sri Sita. Bharata, not knowing, where the Lord was, was worshiping Him only. One served Sri Rama physically, while the other served Sri Rama in absence. Thus, sacrificing everything and having Sri Rama as the only objective, Hanuman and Bharata are good examples of Sanyasi! In fact it is not exaggeration, if we say that the Tyagam, expounded by the Lord in Chapter 18, is the replica of what He, as Sri Rama in His previous Avatar, saw in Bharata and Hanuman! Bhakti, service, Paratantryam [dependence], Tyagam, etc., are brimming and overflowing in these Two characters! Even a few minutes' stay here will certainly bring us the Bhakti, they had for Sri Rama. Therefore, those visiting Ayodhya, should make it a point to visit this place. A great old person is maintaining this for the past 70 years or so. He is so intimately connected with this, that Bharata and Hanuman converse with him! By seeing him, we can visually see what Tyagam is, and once we have understood it properly by visiting this place, there might not be any need for the Lord to take all efforts to explain! Now, we will see sloka 16 of Chapter 18. In slokas 14 and 15, Five factors were mentioned. If a Jeevatman in a body does any action, then Five entities were responsible for that action. He alone is not responsible for any action. Therefore, I-alone-am-the doer thought or kartrutva anusandhanam, should never be there. I-am-also-responsible might be permissible. Today's sloka is answer to yet another doubt. We do an action. We are supposed to think that we are not the doers. Does not this supposition, an illusion? We do an action, but we have to assume that we are not doing! Does not this, sound like the speech of a disillusioned person? To answer this, Sri Krishna replies Arjuna that while any action is done by a person, he should think he alone was not the doer. That is an action is not done independently by that person. He should understand that the Lord is the Motive Force, making the person to act. It is no illusion, but realization. In fact thinking that I-alone-am-independently-doing is illusion or disillusion! We have accumulated past karmas' results; in their effect, the Lord allows us to do various actions. If this is understood, then we will know we are never independent [swatantram], but dependent [paratantram] on another Entity. This is the correct interpretation for remembering I-am-not-the-doer! Now sloka 16:
tatraivaṃ sati kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tu yaḥ
paśyaty akṛtabuddhitvān na sa paśyati durmatiḥ 18.16
Pasyati = sees, na pasyati = does not see. He sees but does not see! Is there contradiction? No. He sees wrongly; and so, does not see the truth! That is, a person thinks he is independently doing an action and so he sees wrongly. By this he does not see that the Lord is the Motive for him to act! Evam sati = while it is so [that the Lord is the Motivating Force to act, as explained in the previous slokas], tatra = there [where one tries to understand atman], kevalam = only, atmanam = atma or self is, kartaram = doer or performer, yah = [he,] who, pasyati = looks, akrtabhuddhitvan = with intellect not obtained properly [by understanding of Shastras], sa = he, na pasyati= does not see, durmati = [he is] fool [evil knowledged]. By not understanding from Shastras that for every action the Lord is the Motive Force and that none is independent, one is having evil knowledge. Such persons think they are alone responsible for their actions. By this they see wrongly and do not see truth. Jeevatman's nature is to be dependent on the Lord and to serve Him; but if we start thinking that we are independent and we only do all actions, then our concept is wrong and we never see the truth. This way asakrutva anusandhanam is explained by the Lord. More questions and more answers are there, to be seen.