Today's [1st September 2009] lecture is from a spot, where many important incidents took place, in Naimisharanyam. It is called Vyasa Gati. It is also known as Jaimini Sthan. Here all important books are stored. On a pedestal, all books are kept and poojas are performed. It is customary to call the seat on which Upanyasakas [lecturers giving religious discourses] sit, as Vyasa Peetam. This is because sage Vyasa has done so much in spreading matters on Bhagavan. We see a portrait of sage Jaimini, to whom Vysa taught Sama Veda. Sama Veda is the musical form of the mantras in Rig Veda. Sama Veda has 1000 sakhas [branches]. Next, we see an ancient temple. In the center is Vyasa and surrounding him is all books on Puranas, Itihsas and Vedas. In Naimisharanyam we have to see Three important spots: 1) Vyasa Gati. 2) The tree under which Vyasa preached his students. It is about 5,100 years old; that is, Vyasa was sitting here in the beginning of Kali Yug. 3) The temple for Vyasa. We should know that he wrote 18 Puranas, which are even today read by 88,000 Rishis and 33 Crore Devas. Without Itihasa and Puranas, it will be impossible to understand Vedas. Of the 18 Puranas, Six each are categorised as Satvika Purana, Rajasa Purana and Tamasa Purana. We have to study all Satvika Puranas and gain Satvika Gyana. For that we should possess Satvika Dhruti. That is we should resolve that we would cultivate Satvika Gyana and perform Satvika Karma to reach Satvika Moksham. In the last sloka we had seen what Satvika Druti was. Let us remind ourselves that Satvika Druti is concentrating our mind, prana airs and organs, in Bhakti and not drifting away. The resolution to involve in such Upasana is called Satvika Dhruti. We have to understand that performing Bhakti on the Lord is pleasure. But we are habituated in seeing worldly matters. Therefore, mind will not easily shift to Bhakti. If atman has Satvika Dhruti, then mind will be controlled and turn it towards Satvika matters. That is mind will be channelised. But our Prana airs in our body also have to cooperate. This is achieved by practicing Pranayamam. This way the Prana airs will help mind. What about sense organs? In Ashtanga Yoga, Pratyaharam is an important feature, by which all organs are disciplined. For all these, the basic requirement is Satvika Dhruti. This way one can reach Moksham and will not have desires in other matters. Next, the Lord explains Rajasa and Tamasa Dhruti. We will see Rajasa Dhruti in sloka 34:
yayā tu dharmakāmārthān dhṛtyā dhārayaterjuna
prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī 18.34
Partha = Arjuna, sa dhrti = that Dhruti is, rajasi = Rajasa [Dhruti]. Yaya tu dhrtya = by which resolve, dharma kama artha = righteousness, desires and materials. Dharma, Kama, Artha and Moksham are Four [purushartham] to be realized. Of these if we resolve to gain only Moksham, then that determination is called Satvika Dhruti. If our resolve was to direct mind, prana airs and organs twards gaining Moksham, then it is Satvika resolve. Instead, if one directs mind, prana airs and organs towards the other Three - Dharma, Artha and Kama [धर्मं, काम, अर्थ அறம், பொருள், இன்பம்], then the resolve to do so is Rajasa Dhruti. In the previous sloka it was mentioned avyabhicharinya yogena, that is without vyabhichari or not fixing anything else other than Moksham, for Upasana. Here, the resolve is to gain other than Moksham. Our resolve is to gain Dharma, Kama and Artha; and so, all efforts are directed in that direction. Dharayate = are sustained, prasangena = with attachment, phala akanksi = in desire for results, such a resolve is Rajasa Dhruti. We can note that Rajasa Dhruti is inferior to Satvika Dhruti. Next, in sloka 35, He explains Tamasa Dhruti:
yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madam eva ca
na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī 18.35
Partha = Arjuna, sa dhrti = that Dhruti is, tamasi = Tamasa [Dhruti]. Here, the Lord points to the person, possessing Tamasa Dhruti! Durmedha = [person with] evil knowledge. His mind, prana airs and organs are all involved in forbidden matters. We can see the difference in all these Three. Satvika Dhruti resolves to gain only Moksham. Rajasa Dhruti resolves to gain others excepting Moksham. Tamasa Dhruti directs involvement in wrong matters. Yaya = by which [resolve], svapnam = dream [we have to interpret as sleep], madam = ego or pride [being well educated or born in famous family or being wealthy]. That dhruti which directs a person in laziness and ego, is Tamasa Dhruti. Bhayam = fear, sokam = sorrow, visadam = worries. This person's activities result in fear, sorrow and worries. Mind, prana airs and organs are always involved in actions, which produce fear, sorrow and worries. This becomes a chain reaction. These fears, sorrows and worries, cause more and more fears, sorrows and worries, and one never gets out of them. These Three are also inter-related and one yields the other. If one resolves to be lazy and egoistic, then his mind, prana airs and organs are directed in wrongful activities and cause fear, sorrow and worries. Na vimuncati = unending or not getting released [from these wrongful actions]. We have heard of Vyasa, Jaimini, Visampayana, Pyla, Sumantu, Angiras, Romaharshana, etc. None of them had Rajasa or Tamasa qualities. With their blessings, we will seek Satvika Dhruti.