Tirumangai Alwar advises his mind to go to Salagrama and worship the Lord. Alwar worshiped the Lord here as Sri Rama, Sri Narasimha and as the One, Who cleared the curse on lord Shiva. In the First pasuram [of the decade on this Kshetram, in Periya Tirumozhi, 1.5.1], he praises the Lord as the One, Who killed Ravana and rescued Sri Sita, and brought joy and relief to all the sages in the forests. He says that when Sri Rama went to forest, He was accompanied by bow and arrows, and killed Ravana. Did not Lakshmana accompany the Lord? Why Lakshmana's name was not mentioned by the Alwar? Sri Rama never considered Lakshmana as a separate entity! Lakshmana was part of Sri Rama. It is like shadow following a person. It is superfluous to mention shadow followed a person! While departing for Sri Vaikuntam, Sri Rama took with Him, all persons and things in Ayodhya. That means Sri Rama was capable of granting Mukti! Therefore, Sri Rama is Sri Muktinath! That is how Alwar praised Sri Rama in the First pasuram on this Kshetram. Further, he says that He powdered Lanka and destroyed all army of elephants and horses. His arrows would spit fire and hit the targets. Here, perhaps a bird ' thaara [தாரா]' was existing, but now not to be seen. The Lord cleared the curse on lord Shiva in Badarikshram. Lord Shiva desired to worship the Lord Sri Muktinath here, says Alwar. We will discuss on another day, about Salagrama and the pooja types and the benefits of worshiping Salagrama. Now, we will see sloka 9 of Chapter 18. After explaining tamasa tyaga and rajasa tyaga, the Lord tells about satvika tyaga:
kāryam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ kriyaterjuna
saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ 18.9
Sa tyaga = that sacrifice is, satvika = satvika, mata = [in My - Sri Krishna's and great persons'] opinion. Earlier, Tamasa and Rajasa Tyaga were discussed. We have to understand performance of our Karmas as Dharma. While doing so, we should forgo the feeling of self-doing, self-owned and result expecting attitudes. Instead, if we mistake doing karmas as Adharma and abandon karma, then it is Tamasa Tyagam; or, though accepting doing karmas as Dharma, yet karmas are abandoned, because of the physical hardships, it is Rajasa Tyagam. Both these Tyagams are unacceptable. Niyatam karma = prescribed [by Shastras] karma. Pancha maha yagna is one such prescribed karma. This is to be performed as atonement for the inadvertent killing of insects and others in our daily routines. These Pancha maha yagna are Brahma yagna, Deva yagna, Bhuta yagna, Pitru yagna and Manushya yagna. By not performing this, sins or papa of killing insects, would adhere to us. Such sins will be obstacles for starting Upasana or Bhakti. They will also be obstacles in continuing Bhakti yoga. With sins accumulating and not performing any atonement by way of karmas, how would it be possible to proceed with and progress in Bhakti? Therefore, all have to perform the prescribed duties. Niyatam karmas are Nitya and naimittika karmas. Karyam ity eva = [these niyatam karmas are] to be performed actions. That is, we have to do these karmas, as they are prescribed in Vedas, without expecting any result. This is basic in our philosophy. We do anything not for results, but because that would please the Lord. Results will certainly be there; but that should not be our objective. Expecting results and performing any karma, would never give us superior results. By doing anything for His pleasure, automatically, all good things will be rewarded. Thus, the prescribed duties are to be performed because they are part of worship of the Lord, because they please Him and because Shastras prescribe them. But mere doing these karmas is not sufficient. Sangam = attachment, phalam caiva = and also result, tyaktva = sacrifice. Attachment is I-am-doing [mamata] buddhi. Such tyaga is Satvika tyagam, according to the Lord. We have to perform these karmas with the feeling that they would please the Lord, they are prescribed in shastras and with the belief that they are means for reaching Moksham. While mentioning tamasa and rajasa tyaga, the Lord mentioned that those persons abandoned the karmas altogether; but here, in satvika tyaga, the karmas are performed and only the results and selfish feelings are abandoned. This important difference between rajasa & tamasa tyaga, and satvika tyaga, should be clearly understood. Shastras say ' ahara suddhau satva suddhi: satva suddhau dhruva smriti: smritilambe sarva grantinam vibra moksha:' - good and satvika food will grow satva quality; satva quality enables unperturbed meditation; with continuous meditation, mind is cleared of all doubts and sins. By performing karmas with satvika tyagam, our mind is cleared of doubts and sins, and such performance becomes the means to reach Moksham. Upasana or Bhakti is performed without obstacles. More and more of Upasana leads to Moksham. In the beginning of this Chapter, Arjuna wanted to know whether Tyagam and Sanyasa were same or not, and their significance. Sri Krishna replied that both tyaga and sanyasa were same and that Satvika tyagam was to be followed, sacrificing attachment and expectation of results in performing prescribed karmas. Today's [5th August 2009] lecture is from the entrance to Sri Muktinath.